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Philippine Churches

Philippine Churches

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History of Architecture Reviewer and Lecture Module
History of Architecture Reviewer and Lecture Module

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Khai Untalan Urlanda on Apr 09, 2013
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CHURCH ARCHITECTURE
Instructor: Architect Eva Maria Villanueva
CHURCH ARCHITECTURE
 
simple, patterned after early Christian types; eitherrectangular or cruciform with simple naves and aisles
 
thick walls reinforced with heavy buttresses for earthquakesprotection
 
immense sizes because of colonial policy which dictated thata church should be built for every 5000 baptized
 
materials used include: volcanic tuff (adobe), hardened lava,volcanic ejecta, sandstone, river boulders, clay, corals,limestone, oyster shells, eggs
SIGNIFICANT EXAMPLES
 
PAOAY CHURCH, Ilocos Norte
 
built in 1694 by
 Antonio Estavillo
, completed1702-1710
 
façade: rectangular, with arched doorway, fourcontinuous pilasters alternating with niches
 
finials and crenellations at pediment niche at theapex
 
huge volutes with low relief lines tracing the contourto disguise the large buttresses
 
 VIGAN CHURCH, Ilocos Sur
 
finished in 1800
 
located within the grid iron planned streetsof a colonial town
 
baroque elements include protrudingcolumns and solid frames; three archeddoorways leading to three naves at the firstlevel, guarded by ionic pillars with
chinesefu dogs
 
 
urn-like finial at pediment
 
SANTA MARIA CHURCH, Ilocos Sur
 
constructed late 18th century,
85 steps
 leading to the church was built by Augustinian
Benigno Fernandez
 
 
massive brick church perched on a hill
 
façade has
circular buttresses
, threeopenings and a blind niche, semi-circularpediment
 
 
TUMAUINI CHURCH, Isabela
 
begun 1783-1788 by Dominican
Domingo Forto
 and town mayor
Pablo Sason
; 1803-1808
 –
circularbelltower was completed
 
pampango artisans
carved the hardwood moldsfor the clay insets that decorate the church
 
ultra-baroque
: unique for its extensive use of baked clay both for wall finishes and ornamentation
 
ornamental details
: serpentine reliefs, spiralcurves, flowers, foliage, sunfaces, cherubs andsaints
 
circular belltower with white limestone finish,decorated with bright red clay rosettes and festoons
 
 ANGAT CHURCH, Bulacan
 
begun 1756-1773 by Augustinian
Gregorio Giner
;completed in 1802 by Fray
Joaquin Calvo
 
 
baroque style
: coupled Corinthian and Doriccolumns divide façade into levels or segments,statues ringed with wreath-like ornaments flank niches, windows with bas-
relief “curtains” 
 
 
plain three-storey belltower with balustered top
 
BARASOAIN CHURCH, Bulacan
 
1871-1878 : stone church was constructedto replace wooden structure; 1880
 –
 earthquake ruined the church
 
1885 : Augustinian
Juan Giron
 commissioned a builder named
Magpayo
torebuild the church
 
variation on the
circle motif 
 
 
flutings on pilasters with ends blunted intosemicircles detract from the NeoClassical
 
belltower has a cubic base, three layesaccented by blind and open windows, tophas crenellations and six-sided cone
 
 
SAN SEBASTIAN CHURCH, Manila
 
a church built for all times after previous churcheswere damaged by earthquakes in 1863 and 1880
 
designed in the
Gothic style
(without flyingbuttresses) by
Genaro Palacios
in Revivalistarchitecture
 
made entirely of steel; plans were sent to Belgiumwhere the parts were made in sections thentransported to Manila
 
interiors were painted to resemble faux marble;adorned with sculpture by
Eusebio Garcia
andpainting by
Lorenzo Rocha
 
 
SAN AUGUSTIN CHURCH, Manila
 
oldest church in the Philippines
; built 1587-1607by
Juan Macias
according to the plans approved bythe Royal Audencia de Mexico and by a Royal Cedula
 
1854 : Don
Luciano Oliver
(Municipal Architect of Manila) directed the renovation of the façade byadding to the height of the towers; thesetowers were damaged in the 1863earthquake and were never rebuilt
 
plaza adorned with Fu dogs representscolonial urban planning
 
High Renaissance : superpositioned Tuscanorders at first level, Corinthian capitals atsecond level; circular windows at plainpediment; heavily carved, two-paneled maindoor with images of St. Augustine and St.Monica amidst Philippine flora
 
nave is flanked by 12 collateral chapels eachhousing a Baroque or NeoClassic retablo
 
Baroque elements include trompe l’oeil :
sculpture by Italian artists
Cesare Dibella
 and
Giovanni Alberoni
on the ceiling andpilasters
 
cloisters built around an atrium with agarden planted by Augustinian botaninst
Manuel Blanco
 

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