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Virus

Virus

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Published by Mohd Yaseen
This doc is for virus details. Take a chil then pil to read out this.
This doc is for virus details. Take a chil then pil to read out this.

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Mohd Yaseen on Mar 21, 2009
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05/16/2013

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1.Introduction1.1.What is Computer Virus?
A
computer virus
is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without the permission or knowledge of the user. The term "virus" is also commonly buterroneously used to refer to other types of malware, adware and spyware programs thatdo not have the reproductive ability. A true virus can only spread from one computer toanother when its host (some form of executable code) is taken to the target computer, for instance because a user sent it over a network or the Internet, or carried it on a removablemedium such as a floppy disk, CD, or USB drive. Viruses can increase their chances ospreading to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file systemthat is accessed by another computer.Viruses are sometimes confused with computer worms and Trojan horses, which aretechnically different. A worm can spread itself to other computers without needing to betransferred as part of a host, and a Trojan horse is a program that appears harmless buthas a hidden agenda. Worms and Trojans, like viruses, may cause harm to a computer system's hosted data, functional performance, or networking throughput, when they areexecuted. Some viruses and other malware have symptoms noticeable to the computer user, but most are surreptitious. This makes it hard for the average user to notice, find anddisable and is why specialist anti-virus programs are now commonplace.Most personal computers are now connected to the Internet and to local area networks,facilitating the spread of malicious code. Today's viruses may also take advantage of network services such as the World Wide Web, e-mail, Instant Messaging and file sharingsystems to spread, blurring the line between viruses and worms. Furthermore, somesources use an alternative terminology in which a virus is any form of self-replicatingmalware.Simply put, it is a program that reproduces. When it is executed, it simply makes one or more copies of itself. Those copies may later be executed to create still more copies, ad1
 
infinitum. Typically, a computer virus attaches itself to another program, or rides on the back of another program, in order to facilitate reproduction. This approach sets computer viruses apart from other self-reproducing software because it enables the virus toreproduce without the operator’s consent. Compare this with a simple program called“1.COM”. When run, it might create “2.COM” and “3.COM”, etc., which would be exactcopies of itself. Now, the average computer user might run such a program once or twiceat your request, but then he’ll probably delete it and that will be the end of it. It won’t getvery far. Not so, the computer virus, because it attaches itself to otherwise useful programs. The computer user will execute these programs in the normal course of usingthe computer, and the virus will get executed with them. In this way, viruses have gainedviability on a world-wide scale. Actually, the term computer virus is a misnomer. It wascoined by Fred Cohen in his 1985 graduate thesis, which discussed self-reproducingsoftware and its ability to compromise so-called secure systems. Really, “virus” is anemotionally charged epithet. The very word bodes evil and suggests something bad. EvenFred Cohen has repented of having coined the term and he now suggests that we callthese programs “living programs” instead. Personally I prefer the more scientific termself-reproducing automaton. That simply describes what such a program does withoutadding the negative emotions associated with “virus” yet also without suggesting lifewhere there is a big question whether we should call something truly alive. However, Iknow that trying to re-educate people who have developed a bad habit is almostimpossible, so I’m not going to try to eliminate or replace the term “virus”, bad though itmay be.In fact, a computer virus is much more like a simple one-celled living organism than it islike a biological virus. Although it may attach itself to other programs, those programsare not alive in any sense. Furthermore, the living organism is not inherently bad, thoughit does seem to have a measure of self-will. Just as lichens may dig into a rock and eat itup over time, computer viruses can certainly dig into your computer and do things youdon’t want. Some of the more destructive ones will wipe out everything stored on your hard disk, while any of them will at least use a few CPU cycles here and there.2
 
Aside from the aspect of self-will, though, we should realize that computer viruses per seare not inherently destructive. They may take a few CPU cycles, however since a virusthat gets noticed tends to get wiped out; the only successful viruses must take only anunnoticeable fraction of your system’s resources. Viruses that have given the computer virus a name for being destructive generally contain logic bombs which trigger at acertain date and then display a message or do something annoying or nasty. Such logic bombs, however, have nothing to do with viral self-reproduction. They are payloads— add-ons—to the self-reproducing code. When I say that computer viruses are notinherently destructive, of course, I do not mean that you don’t have to watch out for them.There are some virus writers out there who have no other goal but to destroy the data onyour computer. As far as they are concerned, they want their viruses to be memorableexperiences for you. They’re nihilists, and you’d do well to try to steer clear from thedestruction they’re trying to cause. So by all means do watch out . . . but at the same time,consider the positive possibilities of what self-reproducing code might be able to do thatordinary programs may not. After all, a virus could just as well have some good routinesin it as bad ones.
1.2.History of Computer Viruses
1.2.1.A Bit of Archeology
There are lots and lots of opinions on the date of birth of the first computer virus. I knowfor sure just that there were no viruses on the Babbidge machine, but the Univac 1108and IBM 360/370 already had them ("Pervading Animal" and "Christmas tree").Therefore the first virus was born in the very beginning of 1970s or even in the end of 1960s, although nobody was calling it a virus then. And with that consider the topic of theextinct fossil species closed.
1.2.2.Journey's Start
Let's talk of the latest history: "Brain", "Vienna", "Cascade", etc. Those who started usingIBM PCs as far as in mid-80s might still remember the total epidemic of these viruses in3

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