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Chapter 4 Cell Biology

Chapter 4 Cell Biology

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Published by Blair
These notes are for Chapter 4 Cell Biology from the Modern Biology textbook by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
These notes are for Chapter 4 Cell Biology from the Modern Biology textbook by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

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Published by: Blair on Mar 22, 2009
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06/15/2010

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Chapter 4Cell BiologyI.Cells – basic unit making up all living things.A.Unicellular = 1 celledB.Multicellular = many celledII.History of CELL THEORYA.1
st
scope 1600 by Galileo – compound consisting of 2lensesB.Robert Hooke – 1
st
observed cork and used the termcells to describe small boxes he saw magnified 20x theeye!1.Year 1665C.Anton Can Leeuwenhoek – lens maker, his scopesmagnified 200x greater than Hooke’s.1.1
st
to see single-celled creatures swimming inpond H2O.2.1
st
to take scrapings from his teeth and sawcreatures.D.Robert Brown – discovered a central structure was inall cells (orchid leaves). Today we call it nucleus.E.Matthew Schneider – observed plant tissue andhypothesized that ALL plants are made of cells.F.Theodore Schwann - observed animal tissue andhypothesized that ALL plants are made of cellsG.Rudolf Virchow – cells reproduce to form new cells.III.Cell Theory (Pg. 70)A.All organisms are made opf one or more cellsB.Cells are the basic unit of structure and function ofall organisms
 
C.New cells come from existing cells by reproduction.IV.Internal OrganizationA.Organelles – tiny structures inside cells. Each has aspecific function.B.2 basic kinds of cells1.Prokaryotes – small, simple cells, do not containmembrane bound organelles.2.Eukaryotes – larger cells containing membranebound organelles.V.Cell StructuresA.Cell membrane (plasma)1.Outer layer in animal cells.2.2
nd
layer in plant cells.3.Functionsa.Allows only certain materials in and out ofthe cell.b.Gives shape4.Composed of 2 lipid layers and proteins5.Double layer of phospholipidsa.Have polar hydrophilic water lovingb.Have nonpolar hydrophobic water hating.a.Allows cell membrane to be selectivelypermeablec.Between fatty acids is cholesterol.6.Plasma membrane proteins embedded in lipid layer= integral proteins.a.Cell surface markers – identifies each celltype. (sit on outside only)
 
b.Receptor proteins – recognizes and bends tosubstances outside the cell.c.Transport proteins – substances move acrosscell membrane.B.Nucleus – largest object in the cell, contains thechromosomes.
JOB
: to control ALL activities of thecell.1.Nucleoplasm – liquid inside2.Nuclear envelope (membrane)a.Double layered; regulates materials in andout of the nucleus.3.Nucleolus – rounded body in nucleus.
JOB
:producing ribosomes.4.Chromatin – very thin strands of DNA.I.Cytoplasm OrganellesA.Mitochondria – powerhouse of the cell – site ofcellular respiration where food is converted to energy.B.Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) – network of canals.
JOB
:to move materials around inside the cell.C.Ribosomes – found on ER.
JOB
: makes proteinsD.Golgi apparatus – flat, sac like; found near ER.
JOB
:proteins (packages) and stores them.E.Lysosomes – storage for enzymes to break down organicfood particles, foreign matter which invaded the cell(germs) or worn out or damaged cell parts.F.Centrioles used during cell reproduction. Foundonly in animal cells.

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