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3 Geometry of Single Point Cutting Tools

3 Geometry of Single Point Cutting Tools

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07/19/2013

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Module
2Mechanics of Machining (MetalCutting)
Version 2 ME IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson
3Geometry of singlepoint cutting tools
Version 2 ME IIT, Kharagpur

Instructional objectives
At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to :(a) conceive rake angle and clearance angle of cutting tools(b) classify systems of description of tool geometry(c) demonstrate tool geometry and define tool angles in :
Machine Reference System
Orthogonal Rake System and
Normal Rake System(d) designate cutting tool geometry in ASA, ORS and NRS
Geometry of single point turning tools
Both material and geometry of the cutting tools play very important roles ontheir performances in achieving effectiveness, efficiency and overall economyof machining.Cutting tools may be classified according to the number of major cuttingedges (points) involved as follows:
Single point: e.g., turning tools, shaping, planning and slotting tools andboring tools
Double (two) point: e.g., drills
Multipoint (more than two): e.g., milling cutters, broaching tools, hobs,gear shaping cutters etc.
(i) Concept of rake and clearance angles of cutting tools.
The word tool geometry is basically referred to some specific angles or slopeof the salient faces and edges of the tools at their cutting point. Rake angleand clearance angle are the most significant for all the cutting tools.The concept of rake angle and clearance angle will be clear from some simpleoperations shown in Fig. 3.1rake angle,
γ
Clearanceangle,
α
Flank surfacerake surfaceReference plane (
π
R
)CuttingVelocity, V
C
Flank surface
α

γ

Velocityvector,V
C
Ref. Plane (
π
R
)V
C
Rake face
Fig. 3.1
Rake and clearance angles of cutting tools.
Version 2 ME IIT, Kharagpur