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Indian Muslims Who Are They

Indian Muslims Who Are They

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Published by ramkumaran
A book which details the about the islamic rulers of India and their conversion efforts . In authors own words: "study to processes of how Indian Muslims came into being and how they have grown in numbers to form the largest minority in India. Ours is a study only in the demography of Indian Muslims." thanks to http://bharatvani.org/

A book which details the about the islamic rulers of India and their conversion efforts . In authors own words: "study to processes of how Indian Muslims came into being and how they have grown in numbers to form the largest minority in India. Ours is a study only in the demography of Indian Muslims." thanks to http://bharatvani.org/

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Published by: ramkumaran on Mar 22, 2009
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03/16/2013

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 Indian MuslimsPrologue
There are books on Indian Muslims like M. Mujeeb s The Indian Muslims (George Allen & Unwin,London, 1967) and Ram Gopal s Indian Muslims (Asia Publishing House, Bombay, 1959). Thereare journals, Articles, and Letters to the Editor on Indian Muslims or Muslim Indians. But whoare these Indian Muslims?M. Mujeeb answers: whoever they may be, and wherever they may be in India, the IndianMuslims take themselves for granted (p.9). It is indeed not necessary to attempt a meticulousdefinition of Indian Muslims because they are so keen on asserting their identity that one cannotmistake them wherever they may be. Mujeeb further adds: It is the author s firm belief that theIndian Muslims have, in their religion of Islam, and in the true representatives of the moral andspiritual values of Islam the most reliable standards of judgement, and they need not lookelsewhere to discover how high or low they stand (P.24).Inspite of this declaration, the moral and spiritual values of Islam and the actions of their truerepresentatives, have been studied by many scholars in India and abroad, more abroad than inIndia. We shall therefore not concern ourselves with these values here. We shall confine ourstudy to processes of how Indian Muslims came into being and how they have grown in numbersto form the largest minority in India. Ours is a study only in the demography of Indian Muslims.July, 1990K.S. Lal
 
 Chapter 1 Early Muslims
No integrated contemporary account exists to say how Islam spread in India. Medievalchroniclers very graphically describe the achievements of Muslim invaders, conquerors,monarchs, governors, rulers of independent Muslims kingdoms, and even officials, in effectingconversions. Muslim hagiological works, some reliable others not so reliable, too report onaddition to Muslim population through conversions. But the actual numbers who embraced Islamyear after year and decade after decade are not known. Some Muslims no doubt came fromabroad as conquerors and soldiers. Some scholars and religious men also arrived either in thetrain of conquerors or at the invitation of Indian sultans or as refugees. Arabs, Abyssinians,Egyptians, Persians and Transoxionians, all find mention as having come to India to seek refugeor fortune. But the majority of Muslims are converts from Hinduism. One has, therefore, tocollect facts and figures contained in stray references of medieval writers, especially Persianchroniclers, to make a conversion-cum-immigration survey to be able to estimate the growth ofMuslim population.On a study in depth on the growth of Muslim population, one is struck by the fact that as againstthe zig-zag pattern of rise and fall of the overall population in the medieval period, Muslimpopulation shows only a constant rise. Another is that in spite of centuries of exertion in the fieldof proselytization, India has been converted only but partially. This proves that in contrast to thequick conversion of some West Asian countries,Islam received a definite check in India. In other words, while countries like Arabia, Persia,Mesopotamia and Syria succumbed to the onslaught of Islam and converted en masse, the swordof Islam was blunted in India. This check provided provocation and enthusiasm to some Muslimconquerors and rulers to take to the task of proselytization with great zeal and earnestness. Theirexertions and achievements find repeated mention in official and non-official chronicles andsimilar other works. Sometimes, besides broad facts, actual data and figures in this regard arealso available. All this information is very helpful in estimating Muslim numbers as they grew fromalmost a cipher.By the year 1000 of the Christian Era the extreme north-western parts of India, in the trans-Indusregion, had become introduced to Islam. As early as C.E. 664, consequent upon an invasion ofKabul and its environs (which then formed part of India), by Abdur Rahman, a few thousandinhabitants are reported to have been converted to Islam.1 Subuktagin also fought against theHindus and converted some of them. But all these events took place in the trans-Indus region,and we may, therefore, agree with Lanepoole in saying that in C.E. 1000 there were no Muslimsin northern India east of the Indus.2However, there were some small settlements of Muslims in Sind, Gujarat and the Malabar Coast.Parts of Sind were conquered by Muhammad bin Qasim Sakifi in C.E. 712. Whichever towns hetook, like Alor, Nirun, Debul and Multan, in them he established mosques, appointed Muslimgovernors, and propagated the Muhammadan religion.3 In Debul, for instance, he enslaved and

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