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Forced Migration Issue 34 - Adapting to Urban Displacement

Forced Migration Issue 34 - Adapting to Urban Displacement

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Published by Jeffrey Marzilli
A 2010 special Issue of Forced Migration Review dedicated to the subject of Urban Displacement
A 2010 special Issue of Forced Migration Review dedicated to the subject of Urban Displacement

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Published by: Jeffrey Marzilli on Apr 10, 2013
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URBAN DISPLACEMENT1
Issue 34
February 2010
FORFREEDISTRIBUTION ONLY 
Plus:
spotlight on Haiti
and 
 
articles on:
Mauritania, South Africa,Timor-Leste, Colombia, Pakistan, the new Kampala Convention,family separation in the UK, cross-border mobility of Iraqi refugees,maternal mortality among conict-affected populations...
and more
Adapting to urban displacement
With growing numbers of displaced people in towns and cities,humanitarian and development actors need to rethinkapproaches to helping the urban displacedlive in security and with dignity.
 
T
he striking fact that for the rst time in humanhistory there are now more people living in townsand cities than outside them is not in itself a reason forFMR to be covering urban displacement. Behind thatfact, however, lies the multiplicity of reasons why peoplehave been moving into urban environments and thereality that for many of them it is not a maer of choice.Relatively lile is known about the precise numbersof those forcibly displaced into urban seings, theirdemographics, basic needs or protection problems.They may choose to be displaced in cities rather thanin camps but they did not choose to be displaced,and therefore they may have rights to protection andassistance under humanitarian law. For internallydisplaced people the situation is especially confused,as they are likely to be living among compatriots facingsimilar diculties and challenges – whether city-bornresidents or, for example, rural-urban economic migrants.People’s reasons for moving to the city may be dierent but their struggle to survive with dignity is similar.How national and international providers of servicesand protection aempt to address their needs istherefore a wider issue than a purely humanitarian,displacement-focused one. The humanitariansystem will have to engage with this reality in a waythat it has previously not been so ready to do.In their introductory articles in this issue of FMR, UNHigh Commissioner for Refugees António Guterresand UN-HABITAT Executive Director Anna Tibaukaemphasise the complexity of the challenges faced bythose displaced into urban areas and by those seekingto protect and assist them, and argue for the need for aradical rethinking of approaches. The articles that followaddress some of the practical and policy issues that urbandisplaced people face and that aect providers too. Theyalso reect the diversity of analysis and geography thatis to be expected given the global nature of urbanisation.In January 2010, during the course of production of thisissue of FMR, a major earthquake hit Haiti, causingparticular damage and loss of life in the urban areas.A large number of people have been le withouthomes – displaced – by this event, and we consideredit appropriate to include an article highlighting theprinciples around which the international systemshould shape its response, while recognising that theimmediate needs are still scarcely being met. We are alsoconsidering publishing an issue of FMR in 2011 that willhave standards, principles and guidelines as its theme.
Search FMR
We have recently added a new page to our websiteto help you search past FMR issues on a specictheme. Seehp://www.fmreview.org/search.htm We hope it will prove to be a useful service toour readers – and welcome your feedback.If your organisation has an online library of resourcesor listings of thematic links, we would be gratefulif you could add links to back issues of FMR. Wealso encourage you to post online or reproduce FMRarticles but please acknowledge the source (with alink to our website) – and, preferably, let us know.
Forthcoming issues of FMR in 2010
FMR 35: feature on Disability anddisplacement (due out in June)
FMR 36: feature on the Democratic Republic ofCongo and the Great Lakes (due out in October).FMR 36 call for articles is athp://www.fmreview.org/DRCongo/; deadline for submissions is 31 May 2010.Later this year there will also be an FMR specialissue, to be distributed along with FMR 36, on HIV/AIDS, security and conict. The call for articlesis online athp://www.fmreview.org/AIDS/All back issues of FMR are freely available onlineathp://www.fmreview.org/mags1.htmWith our best wishesMarion Couldrey & Maurice HersonEditors, Forced Migration Review
Cover:
This image of Earth’s city lights was created by NASA. Data from 2003 courtesy of Marc Imhoff and Christopher Elvidge. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon,NASA. NASA Visible Earth http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/Back top left: Dhaka, Bangladesh. IRIN/Manoocher DeghatiBack top right: Bogotá, Colombia. http://censura20.com/2009/10/18/ciudad-bolivar/
From the editors
We are grateful
to Karen Jacobsen of the Feinstein International Centre, TuftsUniversity, and José Riera of UNHCR’sDivision of International Protection fortheir invaluable support and advice on thefeature theme section of this issue.
We would also like to thank
those agencieswho have generously provided funding forthis particular issue: the CommonwealthFoundation, the Norwegian Refugee Council’sInternal Displacement Monitoring Centre, theSpanish Ministry of Science and Innovation,UN-HABITAT, UNHCR’s Policy Development andEvaluation Service, UNHCR’s Regional Bureaufor Africa, and the US Department of StateBureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration.
 
2 From the editors
Feature: Urban displacement
4 Adapting to urban displacement
Anna Tibaijuka
5Meeting humanitarian challenges in urban areas
Roger Zetter and George Deikun
8Protection challenges for persons of concernin urban settings
António Guterres
10Urban displacement and migrationin Colombia
Sebastián Albuja and Marcela Ceballos
11Invisibility of urban IDPs in Europe
Marzia Montemurro and Nadine Walicki
13Proling urban IDPs
Anne Davies and Karen Jacobsen
16Improving living conditions in Bossaso, Somalia
Filiep Decorte and Ombretta Tempra
18The poor and the displaced in Khartoum
Elisabetta Brumat
19The journey towards social exclusion in Colombia
Rubén Darío Guevara Corral and Diego AndrésGuevara Flétcher
20Desperate lives: urban refugee women inMalaysia and Egypt
Dale Buscher and Lauren Heller
22Urban refugee health: meeting the challenges
Paul Spiegel and the Public Health and HIV Sectionat UNHCR
24Support systems among urban IDPs in Georgia
Namrita Singh and Courtland Robinson
25Education and self-reliance in Egypt
Marisa O Ensor
27Urban shelter and the limits of humanitarian action
Kate Crawford, Martin Suvatne, James Kennedy andTom Corsellis
29Refugees and space in urban areas in Malaysia
Alice M Nah
32Urban IDPs in Uganda: victims ofinstitutional convenience
Hilde Refstie, Chris Dolan and Moses Chrispus Okello
34Transition, connection and uncertainty:IDPs in Kampala
Richard Mallett
36Urban Somali refugees in Yemen
Tim Morris
38Displacement within the city: Colombia
Luz Amparo Sánchez Medina
39The role of municipal authorities
Elizabeth Ferris
40Surviving in the city
Jeff Crisp
42ATM cash assistance: does it work?
Sayre Nyce
44Cities of Solidarity: local integration inLatin America
Fabio Varoli
46City of Sanctuary – a UK initiative for hospitality
Jonathan Darling, Craig Barnett andSarah Eldridge
48Hosting ‘the enemy’
Harry Jeene and Angela Rouse
48“Legitimate” protection spaces:UNHCR’s 2009 policy
Alice Edwards
Spotlight on: Haiti
50Using standards to shape response andrecovery in Haiti
Maurice Herson
General Articles Regulars
 
53Beyond good intentions: implementing theKampala Convention
Prisca Kamungi
56Nowegian Refugee CouncilShade netting: simple design – effective relief
Ingrid Macdonald
57International Displacement Monitoring CentreDisplacement in urban areas: implications forhumanitarian action
Sara Pavanello and Marzia Montemurro
58RAISE InitiativeThe blind spot of the MillenniumDevelopment Goals
Marlou den Hollander
60Cross-border mobility of Iraqi refugees
Géraldine Chatelard
62Non-nationals displaced in South Africa
Jean-Pierre Misago and Tamlyn Monson
64Social mobilisation in IDP camps in Pakistan
Shingha Bahadur Khadka
66Flexible mandate for protection
Andreas Kamm
67IDP camp closure and gender inequalityin Timor-Leste
Phyllis Ferguson
69Family breakdown in Bogotá
Ofelia Restrepo Vélez and AmparoHernández Bello
70Living death: separation in the UK
Roda Madziva
72Voluntary repatriation and the participation ofMauritanian refugees
Leonora MacEwenForced Migration Review(FMR) provides a forum for theregular exchange of practicalexperience, information andideas between researchers,refugees and internallydisplaced people, and those whowork with them. It is publishedin English, Arabic, Spanish andFrench by the Refugee StudiesCentre of the Oxford Departmentof International Development,University of Oxford.
Staff
Marion Couldrey &Maurice Herson (Editors)Heidi El-Megrisi (Coordinator)Sharon Ellis (Assistant)Forced Migration ReviewRefugee Studies CentreOxford Department of International Development,University of Oxford,3 Manseld Road,Oxford OX1 3TB, UKEmail:
fmr@qeh.ox.ac.uk
Skype: fmreviewTel: +44 (0)1865 281700Fax: +44 (0)1865 281730
http://www.fmreview.orgDisclaimer
Opinions in FMR do notnecessarily reect the viewsof the Editors, the RefugeeStudies Centre or the Universityof Oxford. This publicationwas funded in part by theUS Department of State.The opinions, ndings andconclusions stated herein arethose of the authors and donot necessarily reect those of the US Department of State.
Copyright
Any FMR print or online materialmay be freely reproduced,provided that acknowledgementis given to ‘Forced MigrationReview www.fmreview.org’.
Designed by
Art24 www.art-24.co.uk
Printed by
LDI Ltdwww.ldiprint.co.ukISSN 1460-9819
FMR 34: In this issue...

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