Britain, and the Rosenberg trial in the United States—I elucidate how con-ceptions o Communism and male homosexuality have been shaped by representations o Jewishness as potentially incompatible with citizenshipin the modern Western nation-state. Reading these cases against literary works by Marcel Proust, W. H. Auden, and Tony Kushner, I nd that Jewish-ness, homosexuality, and Communism are comparably and conjointly g-ured in these texts as liminal, alien, occulted, and disruptive to the nation—and, at times, as potential sources o the nation’s transormative renewal.Dreyus, Burgess, Maclean, and the Rosenbergs were certainly not theonly Jews, homosexuals, or Communists involved in espionage scandals inthe modern West. Numerous other examples spring to mind: Roger Case-ment, a homosexual Irish revolutionary hanged or treason in 1916; Whit-taker Chambers and Alger Hiss, whose alleged espionage was made public inthe late 1940s; John Vassall, a homosexual British naval attaché blackmailedinto espionage by the Soviets and convicted in 1962; Jonathan Pollard, stillserving a lie sentence in the United States or spying or Israel. But I am ascholar o literature, and so I have chosen to ocus on cases that have oundrefection in literary texts, texts that both generate political discourses andare infected by them. Tracing the imaginative and expressive orms in whichideas about, or example, citizenship and dierence have been posed enablesme to recover the imprints o concepts that have otherwise largely disap-peared rom public discourse. It allows me to claim that homophobia andanti-Semitism are integrally related, that the conception o homosexuality as a political/politicized identity retains the mark o its origins in the anti-Semitic European climate o Proust’s time, and that Communism has servedas an axis connecting the two in the Anglo-American political context.
Mapping the terrain:Definitions anD BounDaries
At the outset o this discussion I want to clariy how I am dening treasonand espionage, and their relationship. Legally speaking, the crime o trea-son is dened very dierently in dierent countries and particularly nar-rowly in America, where the ounders, anxious not to recreate the sweep-ing statutes that made a great range o oenses against the British monarchtreasonable in the eighteenth century, constitutionally restricted the de-nition o the crime to “levying War against” the United States or “adheringto their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comort.”
There are also signicant