JOURNAL OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 3, ISSUE 4, APRIL 20136
Low cost Ultra Wide Band hybrid radardesign using virtual reference tags as roadsafety feature in vehicles
Hadi Abdullah, Ijaz Khan and MohdShamian Bin Zainal
This paper presents a hybrid radar technique of received signal strength (RSS) and time of arrival (TOA) as anapplication in vehicles. Both techniques are used to locate intruding vehicles within a specific area. Received signal strengthand time of arrival technique require high level transmitter and receiver synchronization. To overcome this drawback virtualreference tags (VRTs) are used. These VRTs are spread symmetrically over the covered area of radar design. Being virtual theirinformation is only stored in receivers. The radar design is multistatic radar consisting of one transmitter and three receivers.Transmitter is placed in back, two receivers on sides and one receiver in front of vehicle. Ultra wide band (UWB) signal pulsesare used, giving radar system accuracy even when vehicle is at high speeds. Also in this paper three different cases of intrudersare discussed considering a static radar system for intruder detection. After calculating accuracy and number of VRTs, mobileradar system is designed for vehicles and two different scenarios are discussed.
RSS, TOA, VRTs, UWB, Surveillance area, Radar.
NCREASING technology in vehicles make them faster,comfortable and easy to drive. But on the same timemaking drivers too comfortable makes them unawareof the ground situation on which they are driving. Manysystems are presented that either detect drowsiness ofdriver, either by monitoring eyes, facial expression or bydetection yawning state of driver ,,. These sys-tems lack in accuracy in many cases. For example, if driv-er wears sun glasses eyes monitoring fails, in yawningdetection if driver puts his hand in front of his mouthwhile driving yawning state cannot be detected and everyperson has his own facial features so having system suit-able to extract all types of feature is difficult and costhigh. This research presents a low cost and highly effi-cient system that monitors a specific region around the
vehicle rather than concentrating on driver’s behavior
and facial features. The design consists of radar sensornetwork comprising of multiple nodes acting as transmit-ter and receivers, which alert the driver if any other ve-hicle crosses that specific region.According to radar jargon, radar is classified as monos-tatic radar in which transmitter and receiver are co-located. Bistatic radar, as its name express is one havingone transmitter and one receiver that are separated by adistance that is comparable to the target distance,.The expression multistatic radar refers to systems inwhich there are multiple transmitters and one receiver ormultiple receivers and one transmitter. Using multipletransmitters or receivers increase the sensitivity of radarsystem, increases the ability to classify and recognize tar-get. Also it helps in clutter problems and received signalfading. But multistatic radars suffer with high leveltransmitter and receiver synchronization.Ultra wide band (UWB) technologies provide a promis-ing solution for anti intruder scenario. In USA accordingto the Federal communication commission (FCC) a signalis classified as UWB if it has a bandwidth of greater than500MHz or a fractional band width of greater than 0.2 .In Europe a signal is classified as UWB if it has a band-width larger than 50MHz. Due to large bandwidthUWB signals can penetrate through common materialslike walls, wooden partitions and many materials of foilgiving accurate location and characteristics of objects be-hind. The reason why UWB is preferred in our designis that multiple radar systems can work in a small placewithout getting interrupted, requires less transmittingsignal strength (consumes less battery), high accuracy andless chances of interruption.Most of the recent literature on UWB radar sensor invehicle is using UWB sensors as inter-vehicular commu-nication ,,,. Others using UWB systems totrack vehicles on road are limited to the use of Time OfArrival (TOA) or Received signal strength (RSS) trackingtechniques,,. TOA techniques itself is accurateonly if transmitter and receiver are highly synchronized,whereas slight signal distortion can produce ambiguity in
intruder’s location while using RSS (discussed in section
2). Our design presents as solution to this situation byusing a hybrid of both RSS and TOA technique. Tofurther increase accuracy of radar system we are using
• Hadi Abdullah is a researcher of Electrical engineering at University Tun
Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), BatuPahat, Malaysia.
Ijaz Khan is a researcher of Electrical engineering at University TunHussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), BatuPahat, Malaysia.
MohdShamian Bin Zainal is head of laboratory-Faculty of Electrical andElectronics Engineering at University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia(UTHM), BatuPahat, Malaysia.