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Low cost Ultra Wide Band hybrid radar design using virtual reference tags as road safety feature in vehicles

Low cost Ultra Wide Band hybrid radar design using virtual reference tags as road safety feature in vehicles

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Published by JournalofICT
Journal of Information and Communication Technologies, ISSN 2047-3168, Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2013

www.jict.co.uk
Journal of Information and Communication Technologies, ISSN 2047-3168, Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2013

www.jict.co.uk

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Published by: JournalofICT on Apr 10, 2013
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JOURNAL OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 3, ISSUE 4, APRIL 20136
Low cost Ultra Wide Band hybrid radardesign using virtual reference tags as roadsafety feature in vehicles
Hadi Abdullah, Ijaz Khan and MohdShamian Bin Zainal
 
Abstract
This paper presents a hybrid radar technique of received signal strength (RSS) and time of arrival (TOA) as anapplication in vehicles. Both techniques are used to locate intruding vehicles within a specific area. Received signal strengthand time of arrival technique require high level transmitter and receiver synchronization. To overcome this drawback virtualreference tags (VRTs) are used. These VRTs are spread symmetrically over the covered area of radar design. Being virtual theirinformation is only stored in receivers. The radar design is multistatic radar consisting of one transmitter and three receivers.Transmitter is placed in back, two receivers on sides and one receiver in front of vehicle. Ultra wide band (UWB) signal pulsesare used, giving radar system accuracy even when vehicle is at high speeds. Also in this paper three different cases of intrudersare discussed considering a static radar system for intruder detection. After calculating accuracy and number of VRTs, mobileradar system is designed for vehicles and two different scenarios are discussed.
Index Terms
RSS, TOA, VRTs, UWB, Surveillance area, Radar.
——————————
——————————
 
1 I
NTRODUCTION
NCREASING technology in vehicles make them faster,comfortable and easy to drive. But on the same timemaking drivers too comfortable makes them unawareof the ground situation on which they are driving. Manysystems are presented that either detect drowsiness ofdriver, either by monitoring eyes, facial expression or bydetection yawning state of driver [1],[2],[3]. These sys-tems lack in accuracy in many cases. For example, if driv-er wears sun glasses eyes monitoring fails, in yawningdetection if driver puts his hand in front of his mouthwhile driving yawning state cannot be detected and everyperson has his own facial features so having system suit-able to extract all types of feature is difficult and costhigh. This research presents a low cost and highly effi-cient system that monitors a specific region around the
vehicle rather than concentrating on driver’s behavior
and facial features. The design consists of radar sensornetwork comprising of multiple nodes acting as transmit-ter and receivers, which alert the driver if any other ve-hicle crosses that specific region.According to radar jargon, radar is classified as monos-tatic radar in which transmitter and receiver are co-located. Bistatic radar, as its name express is one havingone transmitter and one receiver that are separated by adistance that is comparable to the target distance[4],[5].The expression multistatic radar refers to systems inwhich there are multiple transmitters and one receiver ormultiple receivers and one transmitter. Using multipletransmitters or receivers increase the sensitivity of radarsystem, increases the ability to classify and recognize tar-get. Also it helps in clutter problems and received signalfading. But multistatic radars suffer with high leveltransmitter and receiver synchronization[6].Ultra wide band (UWB) technologies provide a promis-ing solution for anti intruder scenario. In USA accordingto the Federal communication commission (FCC) a signalis classified as UWB if it has a bandwidth of greater than500MHz or a fractional band width of greater than 0.2 [7].In Europe a signal is classified as UWB if it has a band-width larger than 50MHz[8]. Due to large bandwidthUWB signals can penetrate through common materialslike walls, wooden partitions and many materials of foilgiving accurate location and characteristics of objects be-hind[9]. The reason why UWB is preferred in our designis that multiple radar systems can work in a small placewithout getting interrupted, requires less transmittingsignal strength (consumes less battery), high accuracy andless chances of interruption[10].Most of the recent literature on UWB radar sensor invehicle is using UWB sensors as inter-vehicular commu-nication [11],[12],[13],[14]. Others using UWB systems totrack vehicles on road are limited to the use of Time OfArrival (TOA) or Received signal strength (RSS) trackingtechniques[15],[16],[17]. TOA techniques itself is accurateonly if transmitter and receiver are highly synchronized,whereas slight signal distortion can produce ambiguity in
intruder’s location while using RSS (discussed in section
2). Our design presents as solution to this situation byusing a hybrid of both RSS and TOA technique[18]. Tofurther increase accuracy of radar system we are using
 ———————————————— 
 
• Hadi Abdullah is a researcher of Electrical engineering at University Tun
Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), BatuPahat, Malaysia.
Ijaz Khan is a researcher of Electrical engineering at University TunHussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), BatuPahat, Malaysia.
MohdShamian Bin Zainal is head of laboratory-Faculty of Electrical andElectronics Engineering at University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia(UTHM), BatuPahat, Malaysia.
 
I
 
7
Virtual Reference Tags (VRTs). Reference tags are used insome narrow band tracking systems providing referenceto track intruder or object. These systems use a number ofsensor nodes (mostly nine) spread at the edges of surveil-lance area. Reference tags are symmetrically placed overthe surveillance area and a tag is given to the intruderwhile entering in surveillance area[19]. There are numberof limitations to these kind of systems. For example for anunknown intruder with no tags cannot be located,spreading reference tags all over surveillance area makessystem difficult to install, radio frequency can easily bebreached if intruder carries a transmitter transmittingsame frequency signals, number of sensor nodes are highand also these system are not suitable for large surveil-lance areas. In our design we have virtualized referencetags and saved their information in receivers, reducednumber of sensor nodes to four (having one transmitterand three receivers), and used hybrid of TOA and RSStracking techniques in which there is no need of intruderto carry a tag. Whenever intruder arrives in surveillancearea it is monitored with RSS and TOA hybrid radartechnique and VRTs provide reference point closest toactual intruder location giving our design high precision.To design UWB radar we must have the information ra-dar cross section (RCS). Since we are discussing two dif-ference cases one is for human intruder and second forvehicle intruder we will design our system with differentRCS [20],[21],[22],[23]. Different clutter removal tech-niques can be also used to enhance systems performance.Simple and efficient techniques are frame-to-frame andempty room techniques[24].
2 L
OCALIZATION TECHNIQUES
 
There are different intruder tracking techniques usingUltra wide band frequencies [25]. Received signalstrength and Time of arrival techniques are accurate andcommonly used. A hybrid of both techniques providesbetter solution for intruder localization.
2.1Time Of Arrival (TOA)
In this positioning technique the time signal took to bereflected by the object or target is measured at each re-ceiver. When the propagation time of the signal is known,the measured time provides the distance between the tar-get and respective receiver [25]. Considering three receiv-ers as center of circles and their respective distance fromtarget as radius of circle we get three circles that intersecton a single point. This intersecting point of three circles isthe position of target. Figure 1 shows an example of TOApositioning system.This system is very easy to implement but the maindrawback is that the transmitter and receivers must besynchronized with the same clocks. Even a small error insynchronization can cause huge error. For example aclock error of just 1µs can cause an error of 300m. Alsothis system can generate error from multipath propaga-tion effect [25].Fig. 1. TOA positioning principle.
2.2 Received Signal Strength (RSS)
In this technique the strength of the signal which is re-flected from the target is measured at all correspondingreceivers. If we consider an ideal case each measurementof the signal strength at receivers will give the distance ofreceiver from the target, same like in case of TOA. But inRSS the accuracy decreases in case of multi path fadingenvironment and shape of circle gets distorted. So it be-comes difficult to get an exact intersection of distortedcircles. This can produce a considerable amount of errorin the target positioning [26],[27].
3 V
IRTUAL
R
EFERENCE
T
AGS
(VRT
S
)
 
As discussed in section 2 both the positioning techniqueshave some drawbacks. To overcome these drawbacks wehave designed a system that uses both TOA and RSSalong with virtual reference tags. These VRTs containinformation about the characteristics of target reflectedreceived signal in respective three receivers. Each VRThas its own information. Table 1 shows the informationstored at that each VRT.Table 1Information or data stored in each VRT
 Information Receiver 1 Receiver 2 Receiver 3
Distance fromVRT Distance of VRT  from RX1Distance of VRT  from RX2Distance of VRT  from RX3RSS fromVRT RSS at RX1consideringtarget location atVRT RSS at RX2consideringtarget location atVRT RSS at RX3consideringtarget location atVRT 
Since location of every VRT is known, we can calculatedistance of VRT form three receivers using simple dis-tance formula.
 © 2012JICT
www.jict.co.uk
 
8
=
 
(
2
− 
1
)
2
+ (
2
−
1
)
2
 
(1)
 
To calculate the Received signal power we use Friisformula for narrowband (NB) pulses [3].
−
=
2
2
(4
)
2
 
(2)
Here
−
represents the line-of-sight received signalpower at receiver.
 P 
is the transmitted signal power
,
G
and
G
represents transmitter and receiver antenna gains
.
is
length between transmitter and receiver and
 
is thewavelength
.
For received signal power calculation of a signal in nar-rowband (NB) that is reflected from the target equation(3) is used.
−
=
2
(4
)
3
(
1
.
2
)
2
 
(3)
In equation (3)
1
and
2
are distances from transmitterto target and from target to receiver.
 
represents radarcross section. Radar cross section for different shapedobject is different, depending on objects physical shapesand reflection properties[28],[29]. In our case we take RCSto be 1
2
m
(approximated RCS of human body).To calcu-late received signal power for UWB, we integrate the eq-uation over all wave lengths of signal band (
 L
 f  
 ,
 f  
).This will give us equation (4) and (5) which can be used tocalculate received signal power [30],[31].
−
=
2
2
4
2
(
1
 
1
 
+
)
 
(4)
 
−
=
2
(
1
.
2
)
2
(4
)
3
(
1
 
1
 
+
)
 
(5)
 
Here
c
is the speed of light,
is one sided power spectraldensity and
 L
f   f   B
is the bandwidth of the transmittedsignal. Minimum transmitted power 
min
 P 
for a particular re-gion can be calculated by measuring range of a TX-RX pair andthen adjusting it for three receivers instead of one [32].
4 R
ADAR CONFIGURATION AND DESIGN
 
Before designing our radar system to be mobile, we firstneed to design it in static state and check error and accu-racy. The layout of radar is simple; it consists of onetransmitter and three receivers. Transmitter and receiversare placed such that they are at the edges of surveillancearea. The placement of radar sensors are shown in Figure2.Once TX-RXs are placed at their location, virtual refer-ence tags are planned at different positions within thesurveillance area [33]. The number of VRTs can vary indifferent configurations depending on radar design andcharacteristics of surveillance area. Figure 2 demonstratesa case in which we have 25 VRTs.Fig. 2. Radar sensors and Virtual reference tags.
5 M
ULTISTATIC RADAR WITH
29,
 
105
AND
1681
 
VRT
S IN AREA OF
90
X
90
METERS
 
In this section we have some numeric results that ex-plainour design in more practical manner [34]. We have set oursurveillance area as 90X90 m. On this surveillance area wewill take three scenarios in which target or intruder pathwill be same but number of VTRs will change. This willhelp us analyze radar performance. The target path ispredefined and will remain same in all three cases.Table 2 shows the actual path of target compared withcalculated path having different number of VRTs. Asnumber of VRT is increased references for our radar areincreased giving our system a better ground for locatingposition and monitoring path of intruder.Table 2Target actual path compared with calculated values for29, 105 and 1681 VRTs
Time ActualPathCalculatedpath with29 VRTsCalculatedpath with105 VRTsCalculatedpath with1681VRTs
 At time:0.1sNot in area Not in area Not in area Not in area At time:0.2s X: 67.517;Y: 61.988 X: 70.000;Y: 55.000 X: 66.000;Y: 58.000 X: 68.000;Y: 62.000 At time:0.3s X: 56.000;Y: 58.000 X: 55.000;Y: 55.000 X: 58.000;Y: 58.000 X: 56.000;Y: 58.000 At time:0.4s X: 27.000;Y: 49.000 X: 25.000;Y: 55.000 X: 26.000;Y: 50.000 X: 26.000;Y: 48.000 At time:0.5s X: 83.000;Y: 89.000 X: 85.000;Y: 85.000 X: 82.000;Y: 90.000 X: 82.000;Y: 88.000 At time:0.6sNot in area Not in area Not in area Not in area At time:0.7s
 
 X: 23.130;Y: 54.036 X: 25.000;Y: 55.000 X: 26.000;Y: 58.000 X: 24.000;Y: 54.000 At time: X: 89.000; X: 85.000; X: 90.000; X: 88.000;

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