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Face Recognition

Face Recognition

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Published by: Naveen on Mar 22, 2009
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08/01/2011

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AUTOMATIC FACE REGION TRACKING FOR HIGHLY ACCURATE FACERECOGNITION IN UNCONSTRAINED ENVIRONMENTS
Young-Ouk Kim
†*
 , Joonki Paik 
† 
 , Jingu Heo
 ‡ 
 , Andreas Koschan
 ‡ 
 , Besma Abidi
 ‡ 
 , and Mongi Abidi
 ‡ 
 
Image Processing Laboratory, Department of Image EngineeringGraduate School of Advanced Imaging Science, Multimedia, and FilmChung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea*Korea Electronics Technology Institute, 203-103 B/D 192, Yakdae-Dong,Wonmi-Gu Puchon-Si, Kyunggi-Do 420-140, Korea
Imaging, Robotics, and Intelligent Systems LaboratoryDepartment of Electrical and Computer EngineeringThe University of Tennessee, Knoxville
ABSTRACT
In this paper, we present a combined real-time faceregion tracking and highly accurate face recognitiontechnique for an intelligent surveillance system. High-resolution face images are very important to achieve anaccurate identification of a human face. Conventionalsurveillance or security systems, however, usually provide poor image quality because they use only fixed cameras to passively record scenes. We implemented a real-timesurveillance system that tracks a moving face using four  pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras. While tracking, the region-of-interest (ROI) can be obtained by using a low-passfilter and background subtraction with the PTZ. Color information in the ROI is updated to extract features for optimal tracking and zooming. FaceIt®, which is one of the most popular face recognition software packages, isevaluated and then used to recognize the faces from thevideo signal. Experimentation with real human facesshowed highly acceptable results in the sense of bothaccuracy and computational efficiency.
1. INTRODUCTION
Recently, intelligent surveillance systems have gainedmore attention, especially for use in unconstrained,complicated security environments. The main purpose of these systems is to monitor and identify an intruder withan acceptable level of accuracy. Most existingsurveillance systems simply record a fixed viewing area,while some others adopt a tracking technique for wider coverage areas [1,2]. Although panning and tilting thecamera extends its viewing area, only a few automaticzoom control techniques have been proposed for acquiring the optimum ROI.The final goal of intelligent surveillance systems is toaccurately identify the subject. Face recognition is aseparate research area in image processing and computer vision that can serve this objective.The area of face recognition has become moreattractive than ever because of the increasing need for security. Eigenface (PCA) [3] and Local Feature Analysis(LFA) [4] are popular algorithms in face recognitiontechnology. Other algorithms such as Linear DiscriminantAnalysis (LDA) [5], Independent Component Analysis(ICA) [6], Elastic Graph Matching (EGM) [7], Neural Networks (NN) [8], Support Vector Machines (SVM) [9]and Hidden Markov Models (HMM) [10] have also beenactively investigated for face recognition. Although someleading (according to the FERET Evaluation Report [11])commercial software packages such as those by Identixand Viisage are widely used in real applications such assuper bowl games and airports, critics believe that their accuracy is still questionable. The performance of anyface recognition software depends on how one controlsthe area where faces are captured in order to minimizeillumination effects, pose and other facial variations [12].A performance enhancement technique has been proposedusing the post-processing method in [13].Among various factors that directly affect theaccuracy of a face recognition algorithm, the size and pose of the face are the most important in the sense of quality and reliability of outcome.In this paper, we present an efficient, real-timeimplementation of a four-channel automatic zoom (in/out)module for high-resolution acquisition of face regions.We also test an existing face recognition algorithm [14]using the optimally detected face region. Although objecttracking is an active research topic in computer vision, its practical implementation is still under development due to
 
the high computational complexity and difficulty inanalysis of false detections.Optimum zooming control plays an important role inenhancing the performance of tracking [15] and at thesame time provides for highly accurate identification of anintruder. To realize this function, we first detect and track the face of a moving person in front of four PTZ cameras,and extract several features for tracking and optimizationof the zooming scale. Existing real-time trackingtechniques include: CAMSHIFT [16], condensation [17]and adaptive Kalman filtering. But these algorithms fail totrack the object when it moves far away from the camera.Many chroma distribution-based face trackingalgorithms have been proposed since these are veryefficient in the sense of both tracking performance andcomputational speed. Yang and Weibel [18] proposed areal-time face tracking algorithm using normalized color distribution. Yao and Gao [19] presented a face trackingalgorithm based on the skin and lip chroma transform.Huang and Chen [20] built a statistical color model anddeformable template for tracking multiple faces.These algorithms, however, cannot successfully track the face region in the presence of occlusion or whencolors are similar to the background. The proposedtechnique utilizes both color distribution and ellipsetemplate matching to solve the occlusion problem in real-time.
2. THE PROPOSED FACE TRACKING-RECOGNITION FRAMEWORK 
The framework for automatic face region detectionand recognition is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: The proposed face region tracking and recognitionsystem
 
We used four PTZ cameras for tracking and recording themoving object and an additional fixed camera, which isnot shown in the figure, for recording the wide-angleview.Four cameras can be flexibly arranged for a specificapplication. For this research we aligned the four camerashorizontally, 1 meter apart from each other. Thisarrangement is to obtain the maximum angle face inunconstrained environments. Each camera has a 25zooming ratio and is built over an in-house pan-tiltassembly. Because of the pan-tilt assembly and high power zooming, the proposed system can provide highquality, reliable face features for input to the recognitionmodule.The outputs from the four cameras are directed to thefour-input multiplexer, and the output of the multiplexer isdigitized by a frame grabber. Since most surveillancesystems have a recording device with various kinds of image compression, we needed a separate frame grabber to acquire raw image data. In this system, we usedMicrosoft DirectShow
to minimize redundantcomputations for real-time image processing.DirectShow
can seamlessly integrate the modules to play back or capture a particular media type [20].
3. REAL-TIME FACE REGION SEGMENTATIONAND RECOGNITION
For accurate identification of an intruder, an optimumzooming ratio must be automatically generated by thesystem. This optimum zooming ratio can be obtained only by a robust tracking algorithm. Features used by mosttracking algorithms include: (i) color, (ii) motion, and (iii)contour. The tracking algorithms may fail when the targetobject becomes extremely small in the viewing regionsince color, motion, and contour information are subjectto being unstable [21].In this paper, we adopt the low-pass filter basedtechnique proposed in [24], to detect the candidate area of a moving object. After detecting the moving object, wesegment the face area from the background based on theHSV color system. We can then extract the appropriatezooming ratio and features for tracking based on the faultanalysis of four inputs at the same time. Figure 2 showsthe flowchart of the proposed algorithm.
YFace recognitionFeature extraction for zooming, trackingMultiplex 4-channel image to one imageRGB 24 bit4-channel image
Template matching, check 
4 Active camerascontrol (P/T/Z)HSV transform and dynamic thresholdMotion detection by low-pass NFigure 2: PTZ camera control for face segmentation andrecognition
 
3.1. Adaptive motion detection
In a tracking algorithm, automatic ROI detection isvery important to meet the perceptual requirements. This processing, in general, consumes large amounts of systemresources because of its computational complexity. Color correlation, blob detection, region growing, prediction,and contour modeling [16] are some of the techniquesused for automatic ROI detection.We were able to detect a reasonably accuratecandidate region using a Gaussian low-pass filter. Thecandidate area of a moving object is obtained as
 I  I  I 
mg ng nm
=
^
, (1)where and respectively represent the Gaussianfiltered and -th image frames, which are convertedto the normalized RGB color coordinate system.
ng 
 I n
mg 
 I m
Figure 3 shows the result of candidate moving areadetection: the top left image represents
 I 
, top rightimage , bottom left
 I 
, and bottom right.
523
 I 
 g 
 I 
25
 g  g 
 I 
85
 g 
 I 
23
 
Figure 3: Candidate moving area detection
This method can be successfully applied even whenthe target face disappears during initialization or tracking.
3.2. Skin color segmentation from background
Color information for a moving object is one of themost important features. However, color changes due toillumination changes and reflected light. In thisexperiment, we applied the HSV color model since it isless sensitive to illumination changes than other color models. In the proposed surveillance system, the skincolor of moving objects changes according to the distance between the object and camera even if light conditions arefixed.Figure 4 presents experimental results of skin color changes according to the distance between the camerasand the moving object. In this figure the horizontal axisrepresents the hue value of the face and the vertical axisrepresents the number of pixels having the same huevalue. As shown in this figure, we see that the distributionof hue values for the same face changes according to thedistance from the camera.We can extract maximum, low-threshold, and high-threshold values of a face using the previously definedcandidate area. These three variables can efficientlysegment the face region form the background. Figure 5 presents the hue distribution of a face within the ROI with3 values.
020406080100120140160180
[99] [104] [109] [114] [119] [124] [129] [134] [139] [144] [149] [154] [159] [164] [169] [174] [179]
Hue Value
  N  o .  o  f  p  i  x  e  l  s   f  o  r  s  k  i  n   c  o  l  o  r  (  1  M ,  2  M  )
05101520253035404550
  N  o .  o  f  p  i  x  e  l  s   f  o  r  s  k  i  n   c  o  l  o  r  (  3  M  )
1M2M3M
 
Figure 4: Skin color histograms of the same face at threedifferent distances
 
020406080100120140160180[99] [104] [109] [114] [119] [124] [129] [134] [139] [144] [149] [154] [159] [164] [169] [174] [179]
 f(x 
 )
 Low-th
 f(x 
 )
 Hi-th
 
 f(x)
 Max 
Figure 5: Hue distribution within the ROI
Using the three values,
 f(x)
Max
,
 f(x
i
 )
 Low-th
, and
 f(x
i
 )
 Hi-th
,we can segment the face region within the ROI from the background. The hue index of 
 f(x
i
 )
Max
can be iterativelycalculated and the other variables
 f(x
i
 )
 Low-th
, and
 f(x
i
 )
 Hi-th
,can be formulated as:)(
th Lowi
 x f 
0¡Ü)x()x(
1i'i'
, and (), (2)
Maxi
 x f  x f 
)()(
<
:)(
th Hii
 x f 
0¡Ü)x()x(
1+i'i'
, and (f), (3)
Maxi
)x(>)x( where
 f 
represents the first derivative of .
 f 
Figure 6 respectively shows the original input image,the corresponding HSV image, and the face regionsegmented from the background.

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