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Bilgarish place names in the Ukraine, Poland and Hungary.pdf

Bilgarish place names in the Ukraine, Poland and Hungary.pdf

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Bilgarish place names in the Ukraine, Poland, andHungary
At the second mill BC, Turkic tribe Bulgar, the ancestors of the modern-day Chuvash, primarily occupied the country on the left bank of the Dniester (
Stetsyuk V.
, 1999, 85-95;
Stetsyuk V.
2000, 28). The border between their habitat and the Teuton area lay across thewatersheds of the Pripjat’ and Dniester. As this boundary was feebly marked, linguistic contactsBulgars with Teutons and other Germanic tribes were rather close, as the numerous lexicalmatches between the modern German and Chuvash languages make clear. This fact has beennoted by several researchers working independently of each other (
 Kornilov G.E.
, 1973;
EgorovG.
, 1993,
Stetsyuk V.
, 1998). One may also assume that the labialization of the German frontvowels
ö
and
ü
took place under the influence of the Proto-Chuvash (Bulgars), as such vowelsare characteristic of all Turkic languages. Main mass of the Bulgarish place names is located inthe Lviv Region but north there are in the Teutonic area Bulgarish place names can be found too/For example, the name of the village Pulmo on the shore of Pulemets lake can origin from theword like Chuv
 pülme
"corn-bin" what is near to Ger 
volle Metze
“full measure of grain” whichfrom the name of Pulemets lake origins. Such names as Samary and Tseperiv can have Bulrarishorigin too (Chuv
 sam
ă
"fat",
č 
iper 
"beautiful").The fact of Scythian settlement in the indicated area is clear from local toponyms. The possibility of Bulgarish origin in the toponyms
Voroniaky
,
Tovtry
,
Tustan
’ (
Stetsyuk V.,
2000,20-29) has already been noted. As it turns out, we can etymologize many toponyms coming fromeither the Left Bank or Right Bank of the Dnieper by way of the Chuvash language. However,the prevailing majority of these toponyms refer to settlements lacking the sort of physicalgeographical attributes that could be reflected in their prospective appellatives. Under suchconditions, assigning random phonetic occurrences to the whole set of assumed Scythian placenames is impossible; statistics may be of help. The concentration of etymologized toponyms inthe territory we have defined helps to determine both the area of the ancient Scythians’ primarysettlement, as well as the routes of their last migration. Thus we can examine isolated toponymsas random occurrences. To avoid the influence of the subjective factor whenever possible, theresearcher set up blind experimental conditions to ensure that the territorial belonging of thetoponyms remained unknown during their etymologization. In total, 334 toponyms wereetymologized on the basis of the Chuvash language. After distributing these toponyms by region,a plurality of them turned out to be located in L’viv Region – 60. These account for more thanhalf of the place names in L’viv Region that were analyzed, which is noteworthy as one-forth of the toponyms could not be etymologized at all. Of the remaining place names, 38 are located inCherkasy Region, 32 in Vinnycja Region, 32 in Khmel'nyc'kyj Region, 24 in Ternopil’ Region,24 in Poltava Region, 17 in Zhitomyr Region, and 15 in Ivano-Frankivs’k Region. In this way,statistical data validates the premise that the primary settlement area of the ancient Scythians islocated to the south of Volhynia. However, archaeological data allow us to be more confident inthis conclusion.From the Carpathian system of archaeological monuments dating from the Hallstatt period,L. Krushelnic’ka singles out the Cherepin-Lahodiv group, which falls under the early Scythianera (
 Kru
sh
elnic’ka L
, 1993, 158). Many relics of this group are concentrated in a strip of landextending from v. Cherepin in the Peremishljany district of L’viv Region, through Zvenyhorodand Lahodiv east of the
Holohory
hills, up to Makropil’ in Brody district. In this particular territory we can find a whole crowd of toponyms that can be etymologized via Chuvash. Firstamong these is
Voronjaky
, the name for both a village and a distinct part of the Holohory hillsto the northeast of this village. Chuv.
vyra
, "place," and
 yaka
, “level, smooth” allow us totranslate Voronjaky
 
as “level place,” which is semantically close to Holohory (nakedmountains). But to the east of Lahodiv is a village by the name of 
Yaktoriv
, which can also betranslated as “level-mountain” from the Chuv.
ǎ 
ǎ 
, “top". Southeast of Zvenyhorod, there is amountain called
Kamula
, which at 471 meters above sea level is the highest point of Ukraine
 
outside of the mountains of Carpathia and Crimea. Chuv.
kam
ǎ 
č 
ul 
, “boulder," from
č 
ul 
"stone"is a decent match for the name of this mountain, though the Chuvash lexicon also contains
ă
m
ă
, “character.”
Kam
ǎ 
suits this toponym as well, as there is also an Albanian
gamula
, “heapof soil.” Prior to the Kurds’ arrival, the ancestors of the Albanians and Thracians were neighborsof the Scythians-Bulgars. Through the northern parts of the Holohory hills flows a fast-movingriver called the
Poltva
, the name of which may also have Bulgarish origin (Chuv.
paltla
, “fast").To the west of Cherepin is v.
Kovjari
, and near Zolochiv – v.
Havarechchina
(out of Gavarechchina). One root may be common to both villages’ names (Chuv.
ǎ 
var 
, “hot coal,embers”). Havarechchina is known for its black pottery which are made with authentic, ancientclay-baking techniques. If we apply to this Chuvash word
ě 
ççiny
, “a worker,”
ă
vareççiny
wouldmean "potters” in Scythian-Bulgarish.Since the toponyms that we have found in this small part of the Cherepin-Lahodiv group of monuments presumably originate from Scythian-Bulgarish names inspired by nearby naturalformations, we have a basis for trying to etymologize other toponyms with unclear origins in thearea via Chuvash. On the left bank of the Poltva is a village with the strange name
Kutkir
.Perhaps drawing from Chuv.
kut 
, “a trunk,” and
ě 
, “strong,” this toponym may be understoodto mean “strong trunk.” A cluster of settlements with original names is located several kilometressouth of Lahodiv. Some of them may be deciphered by way of Chuvash:
Korosno
– Chuv.
karas
, “poor;”
Peremyshlany
– Chuv.
 p
ě 
ě 
m
, “skein, hank;”
e
 şě 
, “green;”
Kimyr
– Chuv.
ě 
m
ě 
, “heap, great lot;”
Chupernosiv
– Chuv.
ç
ă
 par 
, “motley,”
masa
, “appearance;”
Ushkovychi
– Chuv.
vy
 ş
kal 
, “similar.” A few more examples of Scythian-Bulgarish toponyms inL’viv Region follow:V. (v.)
Veryn
, south of Mykolajiv, and v. Veryny near 
Ž
ovkva – Chuv.
v
ě 
rene
, “maple;”v.
Tetel’kivci
near Brody – Chuv.
tetel 
, “fishing network;”v.
Turady
, west of 
Ž
yda
č
iv – Chuv.
turat 
, “branch, brushwood;”The town of 
Khodoriv
and v. Khodorkivci south of Bibrka – Chuv.
 xat 
ă
, “alive, cheerful”(the Scythians-Bulgars borrowed this word from Germanic languages: O.Eng.
hador 
,O.U.G.
heitar 
, “other”);
 
v.
Citula
, west of Zhovkva – Chuv.
çi
, “to eat,”
tul 
ă
, “wheat”;v.
Chyshky
to the south-east of Lviv, v.
Chyzhky
on the north of Staro-Sambir district – Chuv chyshk 
ă
“a fist”.Further to the east of the Lviv Region, the amount of the place names of Bulgarish origindecreased gradually, but surprisingly, they form a clear chain of settlements at a distance of 10-20 km from each other (
Sokal
,
Tetevchitsi
,
Radekhiv
,
Uvin
,
Corsiv
,
Tesluhiv
,
Basharivka
,
Tetilkivtsi
near Pidkamin’,
Kokorev
,
Tetilkivtsi
near Kremenets,
Tsetsenivka
,
Shumbar
,
Potutoriv
,
Keletentsi
,
Zhemelintsi
,
Sohuzhentsi
,
Savertsi
,
Sasanivka
,
Pedynka
,
Sulkivka
,
Ulaniv
,
Chepeli
,
Shepiyivka
,
Kordelivka
, etc.) This chain extends from Sokal in the north of Lviv region above Radekhiv to Radivyliv, then turns east and runs south of Kremenets, Shumsk and Iziaslav to Lubar, then turns south-east, goes above Chmilnyk through Kalynivka, and thereis not a chain, but a whole band of names goes in the direction to the Dnieper. However, dealingwith the Bulgar toponymy continues, which is often acknowledged as the logical-semanticrelationship of parts of words, and the cases of almost complete phonetic identity. Compare:v.
Gelmiaziv
near Zolotonosha – Chuv.
ě 
lm
ě 
ç
, “a beggar”;v.
Zhurzynci
, north of Zvenyhorodka in Cherkasy Region, and v.
Zhurzhevychi
, north of Olevs’k in Zhytomyr Region – Chuv.
 ş
ar 
 ş
a
, “smell”;v.
Kolontayiv
, southwest of Krasnokuc’k in Kharkiv Region – Chuv.
 xullen
, “quiet,”
thuj
,“wedding”;v.
Kacmaziv
, southwest of Sharhorod in Vinnycja Region – Chuv.
kuç
, “eye,”
masa
,“appearance”;v.
Kretivci
(from Kretel), southeast of Zbarazh – Chuv.
ě 
ret 
, “open,”
ě 
, “place” (thevillage is located on a level, open spot);v.
Kudashevo
, south of Chyhyryn in Cherkasy Region – Chuv.
kut 
, “buttocks,”
a
 ş
, “meat;”v.
Kuyanivka
in the southern surburbs of Bilopillja – Chuv.
kuyan
, “a hare;”v.
Ozdiv
(from Oztel), southwest of Luc’k – Chuv.
ă
, “open,”
ě 
, “place” (the village islocated on a level spot);v.
Potutory
in Berezhany district and v.
Potutoriv
, east of Kremenec’ in Ternopil’ Region – Chuv.
 p
ă
v
, “to press, squeeze,”
tut 
ă
, “shawl;”v.
Takhtaulove
near Poltava – Chuv.
ă
 xtaval 
, “to interrupt;”v.
Temyrivci
, west of Halych – Chuv.
tim
ě 
, “iron;”v.
Tymar
, south of Haysin – Chuv.
tymar 
, “a root;”v.
Urman
’ in Berezhany district, Ternopil’ Region – Chuv.
v
ă
rman
, “forest" (the village issurrounded by forests);v.
Khalayidove
, south-west of Monastyryshche in Cherkasy Region – Chuv.
 x
ă
la
,“red,”
 jyt 
, “a dog”;v.
Cepcevychi
, west of Sarny in Rivno Region – Chuv.
çip
, “thread,”
ç
ě 
v
ě 
, “seam”;v.
Shuparka
in Borshchiv district in Ternopil’ Region – Chuv.
ç
ă
 p
ă
rka
, “a whip”;v.v.
Yaltushkiv
near Bar and near Zhmerinka in Vinnycja Region – Chuv.
 yulta
 ş
,“comrade.”West of Cherkasy, a bog separates the
Irdyn
’ and
Irdyn’ka
, rivers that flow into theDnieper below and above the city respectively. Looking at a map, one may observe that thesetwo rivers were once part of a channel that separated from the Dnieper, leaving behind the islandon which the city of 
Cherkassy
was built. The Chuvash verb
irt 
ě 
n
, “to be separated," expressesthat situation rather well. The name of the city may be of Bulgarish origin as well. There are nofewer than ten settlements ending with -
kass
ă
, “village, street,” to be found in the ChuvashRepublic in Central Russia (
 Egorov
1993, 38). Additionally, there is substantial variety in thefirst part of the word in the Chuvash language. There are also villages of Cherkasy in LvivRegion and Lublin Voivodship in eastern Poland.

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