Transformer is one of the most vital and important electrical machinery. The development of thepresent day power system is very much attributable to the large number and types of transformer that are in operation in the system, such as, generator transformers, step-uptransformers, step-down transformers, interlinking transformers, power transformers & distribution transformers etc. Being a static machine, it isinherently reliable compared to other machines,. Distributiontransformers are a important link between the power system andmillions of electricity consumers. Any failure of this important equipment,apart from adversely affecting the consumers, will also meanconsiderable financial loss to the electricity undertaking. It is therefore of important that utmost care is taken in the design, manufacture, testing,installation, and maintenance of transformers. A transformer consists of a magnetic core made out of insulated siliconsteel laminations. Two distinct sets of windings, one called primary andother called secondary winding, are wound on such core. Thetransformer helps in converting low voltage into high voltage or visa-versa and accordingly thetransformer is termed step-up or step-down. The winding to which the voltage is applied is calledprimary winding, where as the winding to which the load is connected is called secondarywinding. The transformer works on the principle of electro-magnetic induction. Such phenomenacan take place in a static device, only, if the magnetic flux is continually varying. It is thereforeclear that static transformers can only be used with alternating currents only. When analternating EMF is applied to the primary winding of a transformer with the secondary windingopen circuited, a small current flows in the primary winding which serves to magnetize the coreand to feed the iron losses of the transformer. As primary and secondary windings are wound onthe same core, the magnetizing flux is the same for both the windings. The magnetizing fluxcorresponds to the magnetizing current in the primary and the number of turns of the primarywinding. Primary and secondary windings are wound on the same core, hence the inducedvoltage per turn is the same for both primary and secondary winding. Also the absolute value of induced voltage in the primary and secondary windings is proportional to the number of turns inthe respective windings.
TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
The main parts of a transformer are;1. Transformer core2. Transformer Windings.3. Transformer Tank and Radiators.
Every transformer has a core, which is surrounded by windings. The core is made out of specialcold rolled grain oriented silicon sheet steel laminations. The special silicon steel ensures lowhysteretisis losses. The silicon steel laminations also ensure high resistively of core materialwhich result in low eddy currents. In order to reduce eddy current losses, the laminations are