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Transformer Basics

Transformer Basics

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Published by Pramod B.Wankhade
basic of transformer
basic of transformer

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Published by: Pramod B.Wankhade on Apr 12, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Page 1
The purpose of this manual is to explain how the transformer should be installed,commissioned, operated and maintained in general. In addition to the instructions given in themanual, reference should be made to :IEC-60076 Power Transformer IEC-60296 Specification for unused mineral insulating oils for Transformer & Switchgear IEC- 60137 Insulating Bushing for alternating voltage above 1000V.IEC-60354 Loading Guide for oil immersed power transformer.IEC-60364 Specification for Gas operated relaysIEC-156 Method for the determination of the electric strength of insulating oils.IS-10028 Code of Practice for Installation of Transformers.IS-335 Code of Practice for Maintenance of TransformersIS-1866 Code of Practice for maintenance of Transformer oilIS-1646 Code of Practice for Electrical Installation
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Transformer is one of the most vital and important electrical machinery. The development of thepresent day power system is very much attributable to the large number and types of transformer that are in operation in the system, such as, generator transformers, step-uptransformers, step-down transformers, interlinking transformers, power transformers & distribution transformers etc. Being a static machine, it isinherently reliable compared to other machines,. Distributiontransformers are a important link between the power system andmillions of electricity consumers. Any failure of this important equipment,apart from adversely affecting the consumers, will also meanconsiderable financial loss to the electricity undertaking. It is therefore of important that utmost care is taken in the design, manufacture, testing,installation, and maintenance of transformers. A transformer consists of a magnetic core made out of insulated siliconsteel laminations. Two distinct sets of windings, one called primary andother called secondary winding, are wound on such core. Thetransformer helps in converting low voltage into high voltage or visa-versa and accordingly thetransformer is termed step-up or step-down. The winding to which the voltage is applied is calledprimary winding, where as the winding to which the load is connected is called secondarywinding. The transformer works on the principle of electro-magnetic induction. Such phenomenacan take place in a static device, only, if the magnetic flux is continually varying. It is thereforeclear that static transformers can only be used with alternating currents only. When analternating EMF is applied to the primary winding of a transformer with the secondary windingopen circuited, a small current flows in the primary winding which serves to magnetize the coreand to feed the iron losses of the transformer. As primary and secondary windings are wound onthe same core, the magnetizing flux is the same for both the windings. The magnetizing fluxcorresponds to the magnetizing current in the primary and the number of turns of the primarywinding. Primary and secondary windings are wound on the same core, hence the inducedvoltage per turn is the same for both primary and secondary winding. Also the absolute value of induced voltage in the primary and secondary windings is proportional to the number of turns inthe respective windings.
The main parts of a transformer are;1. Transformer core2. Transformer Windings.3. Transformer Tank and Radiators.
Transformer core
Every transformer has a core, which is surrounded by windings. The core is made out of specialcold rolled grain oriented silicon sheet steel laminations. The special silicon steel ensures lowhysteretisis losses. The silicon steel laminations also ensure high resistively of core materialwhich result in low eddy currents. In order to reduce eddy current losses, the laminations are
Page 3
kept as thin as possible. The thickness of the laminations is usually around 0.27 to 0.35 mm. Thetransformer cores construction are of two types, viz, core type and shell type. In core typetransformers, the windings are wound around the core, while in shell type transformers, the coreis constructed around the windings. The shell type transformers provide a low reactance path for the magnetic flux, while the core type transformer has a high leakage flux and hence higher reactance.The ideal shape for the section of the core is a circle, as this would mean nowastage of space between the core and windings, except the space takenby the insulation between laminations. A perfectly circular section of corewould mean varying dimensions for each successive lamination, which maynot be economical. A compromise is therefore struck and a stepped core(four or six steps) construction is normally preferred. The net sectional areais calculated from the dimensions of the various sections and giving due allowance for theinsulation thickness. The yoke section is arranged similar to the limb section. To make the bestuse of the grain oriented silicon steel it is necessary that the flux run parallelto the direction of the rolling for as much of the magnetic path as possible.This is achieved by selecting identical cross-section and shape for core andyoke sections and having mitered corners. The materials used are such as togive low hysteretic losses, for a particular flux density. These are dependanton weight of material used and design flux density. In case a low flux densityis employed, the weight of material increases, which in turn also leads to increase in length of mean turn of transformer coil. Both these aspects result in increase in losses. Similarly, theeddy current loss depends on the quality of material thickness of laminations and the fluxdensity employed.The limb laminations in small transformers are held together by stout webbing tape or by suitablyspaced glass fiber bends. The use of insulated bolts passing through the limb laminations hasbeen discontinued due to number of instances of core bolt failures. The topand bottom mitered yokes are interleaved with the limbs and are clamped bysteel sections held together by insulated yoke bolts. The steel framesclamping the top and bottom yokes are held together by vertical tie bolts.
The primary and secondary windings in a core type transformer are of the concentric type only,while in case of shell type transformer these could be of sand-witched type as well. Theconcentric windings are normally constructed in any of the following types depending on the sizeand application of the transformer 1. Cross over Type.2. Helical Type.3. Continuous Disc Type.Cross-over type winding is normally employed where rated currents are up-to about 20 Amperesor so. In this type of winding, each coil consists of number of layers having number of turns per layer. The conductor being a round wire or strip insulated with a paper covering. It is normalpractice to provide one or two extra lavers of paper insulation between lavers. Further, the

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