n the Danish pig production industry,carbohydrate-splitting enzymes, primari-ly xylanase, are often added to pig feedto improve gain and feed conversion ratio(FCR). Several trial activities have investi-gated various enzyme products for pigs – nationally as well as internationally - all withhighly varying outcome. Danish trials withfinishers revealed effects on FCR rangingfrom 0 – 3 percent when xylanase is addedto the feed. Lately, most trial activities havefocused on the effect of xylanase on finisherproduction, whereas in Denmark in recentyears no investigations have focused onthe effect of xylanase on weaners.
Enzymes are proteins found in plant andanimal tissue where they form part of thestructure and decomposition of chemicalcompounds. They act as catalysts accelerat-ing processes that would otherwise notoccur or would occur very slowly. Enzymesare specific, i.e. they can only break downcertain types of bindings. Xylanase splitscoherent xylose units in large complex mol-ecules such as arabinoxylans. Arabinoxylansconstitute a significant part of the fibre frac- tion in grain and by-products of grain with the highest concentration found in wheat.There is an on-going development of new xylanases that may have a significantly greater potential than the xylanases cur-rently available. BS3 Xylanase from DuPontNutrition Bioscience ApS (previously Danisco) is one such product. BS3 Xylanasehas not previously been tested on pigs inDenmark or in other countries.Finisher trials have demonstrated a poor-er FCR when pigs are fed coarsely groundmeal feed compared with finely groundmeal feed. The outcome of a small-scale trialwith different grinding of feed for weanersindicated that coarse grinding reduces thedigestibility of feed.A finisher trial comparing finely ground,pelleted feed with coarsely ground meal feedrevealed that the effect xylanase was notaffected by grinding, i.e. the effect of addingxylanase was identical for the two typesof feed. Despite a negative effect on feedconversion, coarse grinding is an interestingoption as it improves gastric health and thegastrointestinal tract. In terms of health, itis therefore be relevant to clarify whether the addition of xylanase may neutralize adrop in FCR.The aim of this trial was to establish the effect onweaner pro-ductivity of adding oneof two differ-ent xylanaseproducts tocoarse or finemeal feed,respectively.The effect wasrecorded ondaily gain and FCR analysed jointly in aproduction value.The trial is part of a co-operationbetween DuPont Nutrition Bioscience ApS,Aarhus University, Department of AnimalScience, and Pig Research Centre. Theoverall purpose of the project is to establish the potential for improving FCR, reducingfeed costs and minimising the environmentalimpact of using xylanases.
Material and method
The trial was conducted at Pig ResearchCentre’s experimental station Grønhøj withweaners purchased at weaning. Two differ-ent housing units were used for the trial: onewith 12 pens/section each holding 16 pigs,and the other had 18 pens/sections eachholding 11 pigs.The effect of feeding the pigs either a fineor coarse wheat-based diet combined with the addition of xylanase was investigatedfrom approximately 8 kg (approximately oneweek after transfer to the weaner section)until approximately 30 kg. The trial design isshown in Table 1.The trial comprised 61 replicates per group corresponding to 781 pigs/group anda total of 4,686 pigs. Fine grinding wasdefined as approximately 65 percent parti-cles below 1 mm and 35 percent above 1mm, while coarse grinding was defined asapproximately 40 percent particles below 1mm and 60 percent above 1 mm. Fine grind-ing was obtained with a 2.5 mm sieve versus5.5 mm for coarse grinding. Table 2 shows the expected activity of the two xylanases.
Feed and feeding
Feed was produced at Danish Agro inSjølund over a total of nine productionrounds. The diets complied with the Danishnutrient standards for weaners in the weightinterval 9-30 kg, and phytase was added to the diets (100% inclusion). All diets includeda safety margin on the calculated amino
The trial comprised weaners in the growth period 8 - 30 kg. The trial set-upcomprised six groups all fed not-heat-treated meal feedGroup123456GrindingFineCoarseFineCoarseFineCoarseSieve profilein grain, %under:above1 mm65:3540:6065:3540:6065:3540:60XylanaseNoneNone875units/kg BS3Xylanase875units/kg BS3Xylanase4,000units/kgPorzyme93024,000units/kgPorzyme9302
FUNDING The project was financially supported by the Pig Levy Fund and theGUDP programme under the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture &Fisheries. Project ID: VSP09/10/51; journal no.: 3405-10-0098.
Fine grinding and BS3Xylanase improveproductivity in weaners
by Dorthe K Rasmussen, Marie Lybye Andersson, Lisbeth Jørgensen, Pig Research Centre, Denmark
feed mnG tenooGy24 | march - pril 2013