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Systems Architecture

Systems Architecture

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Published by Edwin Nájera

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Published by: Edwin Nájera on Mar 23, 2009
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09/08/2011

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ical úmenlaltrgiu lo atlcr\bler'Ii'lúcssr¡Ílf,'ilÍ0t11gravi|gtA.Thomasdiso¡1647-1931ystenlsrchitecture¡¡ best c houghtf0sboth Dr.icessnddisci-plineoproduc€fficientndeffectivenformatiorystems.Itsaroccssecanscsetofstcpss ollow..(lttrroduce,¡ hangehe¿rchitecture[ a si,stem.lt.ridirciplineccauseboCy flnowledgenfon,']5eoples o hemost tfcL:tiveayo design.A systenránnierconnectcdeto{machines,pplications,nci et-work esorrce5.ystelrs rchitectürenificshatsel by mposingtructureon he ystem.¡ore mportantly,his t¡ucturelj€nshe unctionalityfhesvstemith heoalsihe usiness.Systemsrchitecturencompasseshe nfrastructunlayerfFigure-1.
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The asicurposef systemsrch¡teclures o supporthehigherayersoftheenterpriserchit€cture.nmanycompanies,he oftwarendardwarerepresentsignificantortionf heenteDrise'sotalassetst s mportantlhat enterprisefchitectso not equatehejr dutiesithheobiects,heapplications,r hemach¡neshatcompriseheir omain.he undamental purposesosupport nd urtherhebusinessbject¡vesf heenterprise.Hardwarend oftwarebiectsre undamentallyransientnd xist nlyofurtherhepurposesfthebusiness.Systernsrchitectures also sed spartofheprocessf keepingheenterpriserchitectureligned ith hebusiness oalsndrocessesf heorganizatlon.t is rnportanto understandhe echnicaletails f he nfra- structurend he pplicationsunningithintbutalsoo hav€he nowl-edgeoparticipaten heprocessf architecturalhangeithheenteDrisearchitecturaleam.hatnvolveshe ollowingr.Defininghe structureelationships,iews, ssumptions,ndrationalesor heexjstingystemsrchitecturend he hangesn relationships,iews,ssumptions,nd ationaleshat renvolved in any hangesequiredormovingromwhats ovhat sdesired. .Creationf nodels,uides,emplates,nd esigntandardsor n üse n developinghesystemsrchitecture.Letusset h€stageof u¡theriscussiony ocusingnCanaxia. spaftfKelloamessngineeringf Canaxia'snterp e architeclure,amesasbroughtnboard narchitect,he irst ne n Canaxia'sistory. We re ittingn onaseminaleetingithome fCanaxia's-levelexecutivesndMyles tandish,henew rchitect.e s bein€ntroducedo asemi-skepticaludience.t will eMyles'saskn hismeetingoestablish thevalueo Canaxiaf systemsrchitecturend, y extension,systems afchitectspartfhischa¡terMylesasivenversightesponsibilityorrecommendedhangesn hephysicalnfrastructurend or heapplicationstructuref theenterprisehatmeans ewillbepanofhea¡chitectureteamsCanariavolvesN,lylesegins is er¡arksygiving quickundownfwhatisesearchhas ncoveredbouthe tate fCanaxiasystemsrchitecture.he iscus- sionroceededs ollows.Mylesotedhat argeartfCa¡axiaixed ssetsikehosef mastafge o¡porations.snhepplicationsndmachineshatcompriseanaxiasystemsfchitecturehecorporationsn Canaxiasusinessnvironmenthat estmanageheir ystemsarchitecturesillheiebyaincompetitivedvantage.Henotedhathemaiorityf heudgetf henform¿tionech-nologylTldepartments srvallowedycostselatedo Canaxjas .¡nlrastÍuctu¡et he¡esentimemostf heseostsre ixedfCanaxiaishesogainny eilltynmanagingts niormationech. nologyesources.twill aveo putntots ystemsrchitecturehenecessaryime. [Íort.rrd ttentio¡osharplyeducehoseosts
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,Maior usinessnformationechnologyunctionalityt canariaMylesointedut, sdivided mongilo-applicationshatwere,nsome ases,reatedhree ecadesgo.Here,Myles as nter'rupted y an executiveicepresidenthoasked,'Yourenot goingo tell us hatwehaveo rew¡ite f replacehese pplica- tions reou?We averied hat."Mylesirmlyeplied hathehadnoplansoreplacenyof lhe egacy pplicat¡ons.atherhanreplace,ewasoingobreak ownhesilos ndetheapplica-tions alklngo eachther¡The erroristttackhat completelyestroyedheworldadecenter n NewYorkCltyhas putdisasterecoveryn heIontbumerfor anaxia.ystemsrchitecturessuesre rucialtodis-asterecoverylanDRP}.Theystemsrchitecturespectsfdata ecoverylanningre iscussedatern hischapter.)spartof hispresentation,yles riefedhebusinesside n he ystemsarchitectureed¡on f a disasterecoverylanhathadbeendevelopedy hearchitectureroup..Mylesheniscussedhessuesurfoundingtorage.easkedhe executivesftheyealizedhat, t he ate hatCanaxia'sata tor-age ostsere ising, y200óhecost f storageouldqualhecunentTbudget.he tunnedilenceom heexecutivesn theroom old Myleshathiswasnew nformationol theexecutive team.Myleshen aid ewouldlsosk hem or heir upponcontrollinghoseosts nd herebyainingfufthef ompetitiveadvantaeeorCanaxia.The ecentlurry f bankruptciesmongarge, igh-profileompa-nies as ed o thempositionf stringenteportingules n hetop ierofpubliclywnedompaniesn theUnited tatesheserules emandfmosteal-timeinancialeportingapabilitiesromITdeoartments.anaxias one l thecorcolationsubiecto henew eportingtringencies.lylesluntlyold hegatheredan-agershat he urrentinanc¡alsystemasoo nflexibleo provideanythingorehanhe ülfent et freponsnd hathe astestthoseeportsan e ufned utsmonthly.yles ext tatedhatacceleratedinancialeportin€ouldea highliorityn hisagenda.his loughtodsromhexecutives.l,y'yleslso roughtp he ssuehatisibilitynto he tate fCanaria'snfrastructuresan mportantomponentfacompleteview f hebusiness.ylesntendedo buildreportingnfra-structurehat flowedinemanagersnd pper-levelanagenenttohaveusinessntellicencet heir isposalo hey ould scer-tain f thesystem'snfrastructureas egativelympactingmpor-tant usinessetrics,uch sorderulfillment. n he ack fhismind,\¡ylesas ertainhatCanaxiasntiquatedystemsrchi-tecturewasheootcausefsomef heissatisfactionustomcrs
CanaxiaBrings nA¡chitectnBoard
A Proclicoluld€loEnleryiseAlchileclure,Sysl€msrchileclurs3
 
AProclicoluideloEnlerprheArchileclure4wereeeling boutheautomanufacturereknewhatbringingmet¡icsfthecompany'snfrastructu¡€erfotmancento heexist.ingbusinessntelligenceBl)ystem asn mportantomponentin restoringustomeratisfactionevels.The umulativempact f housandsf owlevelecisionsas ncum-beredCanaxiaithan nfrastructurehatdoesn'teNe usinessrocessneedsndetdevouÍshemajofityf he Tbudget.nmany ases, u¡chasedecisionse¡emadeustbecausehe echnologyasneat"ndtheatestthing.'Under y enurehatwill stop,"Myles tatedirmlyWere alkincaboutar oomuchmoney o allowhat.Movin€orward,ow ¿elltheroiectmatchesithheunderlyinCusinessrocess,nd ts eturn nn'/estment(ROl)illdetermineherehesystemnfiastructureudget oes.'Thenhesubiectf money-the udgetssue-camep.Yourenotexpectingbig ncreasen budgeto accomplishll his, reou?omoneysavailableofbudget ncreasesf any ize,'¡ylesa3rformed.He espondedypointin€ut hat he ystemnfrastfucturef anentef- pfisehoulde ookedt asan nvestment:lajornvestment.n nvest, ment hosealuehouldncreaseithime, ot sanobiecthosealuedepreciates.he nderpeformingreaseedo be evampedr eplaced. Theareashat epresentncome, rowth,r cost-reductionpportuniliesneedobe he ocus.Afterhemeeting,othKellondMyleseltgreatlyncouraged.othhadbeen nvolvedn ente¡priserchitecture [fots hathadaltered ndfailed. hey oth newhat heprimeeasonor he ailureasnnabilityto engageheC-level anagersn thearchitecture rocessnd eepheminvolved.hismeeting adet cleafthat,s af asCanaxiasopmanagementwas oncerned,he ssuesf ncreasedinancialeporting,isasterecovery andcostontainmenteren heshoÍtist of concerns.¡ylesndKelloknewhat heywouldavehesupporthey eededo build heir fchitec- ture They lsonewhat hatarchiteclureouldaveo ranslatento ul-fillmentfCanaxiabusiness oncerns.
Architecturaloproacho Infrastructure
It s mportañto ake holisticiewfall heartsna systemnd litheit nl¿raaliakt.We uggesthat hemost ffective¿thounderstandingsystems obuild cataloguef he ¡t¿dr¿¿Jhesyster¡ xposes r heo¡tr¿¡¿lshesys'tem ulfills ocusingn he ontractr he nterfaceakest much asiero move wayrompreoccupatio¡ithmachinesndrograms¡dmoveoaocus n heenterpriseunctionalityhat hesystems ustrovideakenhigherp he rchitecturetack,he ontracthould ap irectlyohe usi-nessrocesshat he yster¡biectsre upposedoenableWhenoneroperly,reatingnd mplementingnew ystemsrchi-tecturerchangingn eristingnenvolvesanaginghcpfocessywhichtheorganizationchieveshenew Íchitectureswell s manaCinghe assemblyf'theomponentshatmakep hat rchitecturet nvolvesan'ag¡nChedisruptiono hestakeholders.s well smanag¡nghepiecesndpartsTheoalsoimproveheprocessf cteatingnd/orelectingewapplicationsnd heprocessf ntegtatlnghernntoexistingystems. hepayolfs o reduceToperatingosts y mprovingheefficiencyf heexist- ingnfrastructure.
Additionalystemsrchitectureoncerns
The ollowingre ome onsiderat¡onso akentoaccounthen !ild-inga systemsfch¡tectureo supporthcenterprise:.The usinessrccesseshat heapDlications,achines,ndnet-work¡e upposedo support.his s heprimaryoncernf hesystemsrchitectureorannterprise.ence,narchitect eedsomap llthecompany'süsinesstocessesoheapplicationsndinfrastructurehat ssupposedo suppoft t.Thismappinghould be aken ownhe owestevel fbusinessequi¡ements.r alllikelihood, 100elcentit betweenhebusinessequirementsand he mplementationill notbepossible..Anyanftheverallrchitecturehatsbeincompromised.leasthatoften ufferre hedata ndsecurityrchitecturesnddataquality.he ata rchltectureuffersecauseserson'thaveheknowledgend xpertiseo understandheeffectsi hei changestoprocedure.ecuítyrchitectureuffersecauseecurity softenviewedbyemployeesasanunnecessarynuisance.atanteglitysuf-fers ecauseeopleteressuredoproduceorenessime ndtheproperross-checksn hedata re otpelormed..Thetakeholdersn hesystemsrchitecture.heeoplenvolved,includ¡ngheollowing:oThe ndividualshohave reatedhe existingrchitectuleoTheeopl€askedwithanagingnd nhancinghat lchitectureoTheeoplen thebusinesshowillbeaffected ositivelyndnegaiivelyyany hangesn hecurent ystemslchitectureoThe usiness'sradin€artnersnd thet nterpriseshathavea staken heeffectiveunctioningnd ontinuedxistence[this orporationoAny ustomercealtwithdirectlyver he nternetThe eeds nd oncernsf hestakeholdersillhave afcempact nwhatan ealtemptedna systemsrchitecture hangend ow uccessfulanv ew rchitectureillbe..The ontexthat he ew ystemrchitectufencoÍtpasses.¡ hislext,0rt¿xleferso heglobalnterpfiseealitiesnwhichystenlsarch¡tectsind hemselves.fyouea companyhatsimitedo asingle ountry,anguage,ndurrency,ou'reheontextillprob-ably eelativelyimple.anaxiasaglobalorporation,ndtsSyslemsrchileclure¡

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