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Non-Destructive Testing of Wood and Wood-based Materials

Non-Destructive Testing of Wood and Wood-based Materials

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08/29/2013

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Non-destructive
 
testing
 
of 
 
wood
 
and
 
wood-based
 
materials
Peter
 
Niemz
a
, David
 
Mannes
b
,
a
ETHZurich,InstituteforBuildingMaterials(WoodPhysics),Schafmattstrasse6,CH-8093Zurich,Switzerland
b
PaulScherrerInstitute,CH-5232VilligenPSI,Switzerland
a
 
r
 
t
 
i
 
c
 
l
 
e
 
i
 
n
 
f
 
o
 Articlehistory:
Received29March2012Accepted4April2012Availableonline8May
 
2012
Keywords:
WoodNon-destructivetestingCulturalheritage
a
 
b
 
s
 
t
 
r
 
a
 
c
 
t
Methods
 
of 
 
non-destructive
 
wood
 
testing
 
continue
 
to
 
gain
 
importance.
 
Online
 
tools,
 
for
 
example
 
tocontrol
 
production,
 
have
 
effectually
 
been
 
in
 
use
 
for
 
years.
 
Based
 
onameasuring
 
systematics
 
(physicallyactive
 
principle
 
and
 
important
 
influencing
 
factors),
 
asummary
 
of 
 
methods
 
to
 
assess
 
cultural
 
heritageobjects
 
isgiven.
 
To
 
adopt
 
methods
 
based
 
on
 
physical
 
effects,
 
profound
 
knowledge
 
of 
 
wood
 
physics
 
isessential,
 
particularly
 
knowledge
 
of 
 
interdependencies.©2012
 
Elsevier
 
Masson
 
SAS.
 
All
 
rights
 
reserved.
1.Researchaims
Thispapergivesanoverviewonvariousmethodsavailableforthenon-destructiveinspectionofwoodenculturalheritageobjects.
2.Introduction
Woodenculturalheritageobjectsareexposedtonumerousstressfactors:
usage(mechanicalwear,impactoffluids[e.g.waterdamage]);
mechanicallong-termloadandsubsequenteffectsthereof,suchascreepingorrelaxation(e.g.musicalinstrumentsunderpreten-sionsuchasviolins,pianos,etc.);
stressesinducedbymoisturechanges,inparticularingluedcomponents(e.g.veneeredfurniture,plywoodelements);effecttypicallyoccurringunderlowrelativehumidityconditions(<20%RH)forexampleduringwinter-timeinheatedrooms;
insectattack;
fungaldecayoccurringforwoodmoisturecontentsmorethan20%(typicalprobleminbuildingandcivilengineering,relativelyuncommonforotherkindsofwoodenculturalheritageobjects).Generally,itcanbeassumedthatwoodpropertiesscarcelychangeunderdryconditions;onlyacertainreductioninthevariationoftheequilibriummoisturecontentoccursduetothereductionofresidualstresses[1].
Crackformationand
Correspondingauthor.
E-mailaddresses:
niemzp@ethz.ch(P.Niemz),david.mannes@psi.ch(D.Mannes).
delaminationaremorelikelyoccurrences,inparticularinculturalheritageobjectswithaveneeredsurface(inthepast,thesupport-ingmaterialfortheveneersurfacewas
 
typicallysolidwood,whichshowsmoreswellingthanmaterialsusednowadaysassupport-ingmaterial,suchasplywoodorMDF).Furthermore,propertiesof materialsusedinthepastasadhesives(e.g.boneorfishglue)andforthesurfacetreatment(e.g.shellac,lacquer,etc.)differconspicu-ouslyfromthepropertiesofmodernmaterials.Thematerialsusedinthepastweregenerallymoreelasticbutlessmoistureresistant.Reliablecharacteristicsforthesepropertiesarepracticallyunavail-ableasthematerialsarescarcelyusednowadays.Fortheassessmentofculturalheritageobjectsavarietyoftech-niquesisrequired.Thebasisforanyreliableevaluationisthoroughknowledgeofthepropertiesofwoodasabasicmaterial.Inaddi-tiontosimpletests,suchasvisualinspectionwithamagnifyinglensormanualscanning/knockingforsurfacedefects,non-destructivetestingmethodscanalsobeusedtocontributetowardsfindings.Inthefollowingwe
 
giveanoverviewofsuchmethods.Thefocusliesonmethodssuitableforthestudyofculturalheritageobjects.Meth-odsforstructuralanalyses,aswellasmethodsusedpredominantlyforscientificresearch(e.g.X-rayimagingatsynchrotronsources)andalsomethodsusedforstrengthgradingarenotincluded.Like-wise,chemicalanalysesforthedeterminationofemissionorwoodpreservativesareexcluded.
3.Woodandstructuralelementpropertiesinthefield
 3.1.Woodproperties
Assessingtheageofwoodisverydifcultduetothehighvariabilityofwoodproperties(e.g.density,mechanicalstrength,colour,etc.)andtheunknowninitialstate.Forcomparison,only
1296-2074/$seefrontmatter©2012ElsevierMassonSAS.Allrightsreserved.doi:10.1016/j.culher.2012.04.001
 
P.Niemz,D.Mannes/JournalofCulturalHeritage13S(2012)S26–S34
S27
highlyvaryingreferencevaluescanbefoundinliterature.Certainwoodpropertiesalteroverthecourseoftimebringingaboutgrad-ualchanges.Oftenmoisturefluctuationssuperimposeeachother.ThegreatvariabilityofwoodpropertiesisshowninthefollowingexampleofcharacteristicvaluesofNorwayspruce(
Piceaabies
qualityindicators(density,modulusofelasticity(MOE),modulusofrupture[MOR]):
density:300
...
640kg/m
3
,
MOR:49
.
 
..
78
.
 
..
136N/mm
2
,
MOE:7300
...
11000
.
 
..
21400N/mm
2
;
colourvalue,alsoincolourchangesduetonaturalaging;
theequilibriummoisturecontent(EMC)doesnotvarysig-nicantly,neverthelessthevariationcoefcientdecreasesconsiderablywithage.Yokoyamaetal.[3]statethatagedwooddoesnotshowsig- nificantvariationsofrigidity(inlongitudinalandradialdirection)orstrength(longitudinal);buttheyfurtherstatethatthewoodagedrasticallyinfluencesthepost-linearbehaviour,wherethestrengthandruptureenergy,especiallyperpendiculartothegraindecreasemarkedly.Duringstorageandnaturalagingseveralchangescanoccur:colourchanges(brightening/darkening);sprucewooddarkensthroughagingwhilemaplewoodandbirchsubduestostrongyel-lowing,otherwoodspeciesbrightentodifferentdegrees.Otherchangesthatcanoccurincludesurfaceroughnessanderosionof early-woodunderexposuretoUV-radiationandwater(Fig.1)[4].
 3.2.Propertiesofstructuralelements
Failureofwoodenstructuralelementscausedbypuremechan-icalloadrarelyoccursinculturalheritageobjects.Failurecanoccurinadhesivejointscausedbypermanentswellingandshrinkageinlong-termexperiments(e.g.delamination,crackformation,etc.)(Fig.2).Swellingandshrinkageandtheresultingstressescancause crackformationinwoodenframesorfillings.Theeffectsofpre-tensioning,fordecadesorcenturiesinmusicalinstrumentsfor
Fig.1.
Colourchangeofparquet(top:Sycamoremaple(
 Acerpseudoplatanus
)bot-tom:
 
Pangapanga(
Millettiastuhlmannii
))underlightexposure;theleftthirdshowsthe
 
initialcolour,thelefttwo-thirdsthediscolouration.
Source:[4]
Fig.2.
Crackformationanddelamination(a)aswellasinsectattack(b)inmusicalinstrumentscausedbyongoingmoisturechanges.
example,arescarcelyknown.Duetorheologicalbehaviour,relax-ationandcreepcanbeexpected,whichcanevenbeamplifiedbythemechanosorptiveeffectofsuperimposedmoisturechanges.AnoverviewonthepropertiesofwoodformusicalinstrumentsisgivenbyBucur[5].
4.
 
Basicprinciplesofnon-destructivetestingmethods
4.1.Methodologicalapproach
Nowadays,themostcommonapproachistousemultisen-sortechniques,i.e.acombinationofseveralmeasuringmethods,becauseasingleparameterisgenerallyinsufficienttoconciselydescribetheconditionofanobjectormaterial.Smallerdefectssuchassmallknotsorcracksare,forexample,scarcelydetectedusingsimplesoundtransmissionmeasurements.Methodsusedinthecontextofautomatedproductionusemostlyacombinationofseveralmeasuringinstrumentstoassessifthetargetparameters,whicharecomputedusingmathematicalmethods,conformtotheguidelinevalues.Suchmethodsaremostlytoointricateandimpracticaltobeusedfortheevaluationofcul-turalheritageobjects,sotheutilisationislimitedtofewindividualcases.Fig.3showsthebasicconcept.Nowadays,thewholespec- trumofphysicalpropertiesofwoodisusedforthenon-destructivetestingofwood.Anoverviewontheselectedphysicalwoodpropertiesandtheirusabilityfornon-destructivetestingforwoodandwood-basedmaterialsisgiveninTable1.Fortheassessmentofculturalheritageobjects,onlysomeof theavailablenon-destructivetestingmethodscanbeconsidered.Theseareessentially:
measurementsofthemoisturecontent;
Fig.3.
Basicconceptofnon-destructivetestingmethods;combinationofdifferentmethods:y=f(a
1
...
a
n
),whereyisamathematicalmodelorestimationfromtestingperson.
 
S28
P.Niemz,D.Mannes/JournalofCulturalHeritage13S(2012)S26–S34
 Table1
Summaryofmethodsfornon-destructivewoodtesting.PropertyBasicphysicalprinciplesMeasurablepropertiesSuitabilityforinvestigatingculturalheritageMechanicalpropertiesDrillingresistance,hardness,intrusionbehaviourDetectionoffungaldecay,densityxElectricalpropertiesElectricalresistancexCorrelationbetweenelectricalresistanceandmoisturecontentMoisturecontentxCorrelationbetweenelectricalresistanceandfungaldecayDetectionoffungaldecayxDielectricalproperties MoisturecontentAcousticalproperties(Ultra-)sound-velocity,-reflection,-attenuationElasticconstants(E,G)Defectdetection(knots,cracks,delamination)AcousticemissionMicrocracks,insectnoises(x)EigenfrequencyElasticconstants(E,G)DelaminationingluedwoodjointsxThermalpropertiesHeatradiation(thermography)Defectsonnear-surfaceareas(failingadhesionof 
 
inlays,openedfugues)xParticles Neutronradiation AllocationofhumidityWoodpreservatives(penetrationbehaviour)x(onlyatfewlargescalefacilities)ElectromagneticwavesMicrowavesGraindirection,density(x)IR/NIRradiationHumidity,chemicalanalysis(impurities),partlymechanicalattributes(x)VisiblelightColourmeasuring(CI-Lab)
aging,colourdifferences/changesxVideoimagecorrelation
crosscorrelation,straindistributionxX-ray(tube)AbsorptionDensity,localdensityallocation,annualgrowthringprofilesxDiffractionMicrobrilangleinS2-layer(x)Complexequipment,mainlylaboratorytestingX-ray
 
(synchrotron)Microstructureanalysisx(onlyatfewlargescalefacilities)
strainmeasurements;
colourmeasurements;
delaminationsurveys;
computedtomography(mainlybasedonX-raytransmissionmeasurements):ascertainmentofdefectswithinthematerial(rot,insectattack,cracks),thematerialcomposition/objectcon-struction,agedating(growthringanalysis);
ultrasound:assessmentofmechanicalparameters;
videoimagecorrelation:determinationofdistortionduringmechanicalloadormoistureinducedstresses;
thermography:detectionofveneerdelamination;
chemicalanalysesusingspectroscopy:verificationofappliedsurfacefinishing/woodpreservatives,correlationofphysico-chemicalproperties,etc.Alongsidesuchmethods,visualinspectionsandclassicalmicro-scopicmethodscanstillbeveryhelpful.Table2givesanoverview ofthemethodswiththeirobjectivetarget.Agoodoverviewontherightmethodologytosolveproblemnon-invasivelyisforexamplegivenintheworksbyHellier[6]and Shull[7].
Bucur[8]reportsonexistingnon-destructivecharacteri- sationandimagingmethodsforwood.
5.Shortoverviewofcommonlyappliedmethods
5.1.Mechanicaltests5.1.1.Deformationmeasurements
Deformationundergivenloadismeasuredtoassessthemodu-lusofelasticityandthestrength(usingthecorrelationbetweenmodulusofelasticityandstrength)(Fig.4)[9].Thecalculation,
 Table2
Overviewofavailabletestingmethods,sortedalongtheobjectivetarget.TargetobjectiveMethodLayerthicknessmeasurement Optical,electricalStructuralanalysesIncrementborer,treeringanalyses,fractometercomputedtomography(usinge.g.X-ray,neutrons,ultrasound),microscopic(SEM,optical)Age
 
datingDendrochronology(basedon:opticalassessment,X-raydensitometry,neutronimaging,etc.),radiocarbondatingC14,Moisturecontent,MoisturedistributionElectrical,dielectrical,NIR-spectroscopy(onlysurfacehumidity),neutronimaging,gravimetric(kilndrying)ChemicalcompositionIR,NIR-spectroscopy,wetchemicalanalysesDelaminationofbondedjoints,coatingsUltrasound,X-rayimaging,thermographyInnerdefects(insectattack,rot,cracks)Computedtomography(basede.g.onX-ray,sound(lowspatialresolution)orelectricalresistance),drillingresistance,StrengthSound,mechanicalloading,eigenfrequencyColour Colourmeasuringinstruments(CIELab)Structuralchangesunderload SoundemissionDistortionundmechanicalorclimate-inducedloadVideoimagecorrelation/photogrammetryElectronicspecklepatternInterferometryGlossGlosslevelmeasurementStraingaugingVideoimagecorrelation/photogrammetry

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