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Homosexuality

Homosexuality

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Published by zerlin_cute9
hi all who this document i wish you enjoy reading my projest and will help to your problem if u want to be my friend please add me okay cornet cute16@yahoo.com if u have comment and suggestion plz comment me okay and i wish you will like it
hi all who this document i wish you enjoy reading my projest and will help to your problem if u want to be my friend please add me okay cornet cute16@yahoo.com if u have comment and suggestion plz comment me okay and i wish you will like it

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Published by: zerlin_cute9 on Mar 23, 2009
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Homosexuality refers tosexual behavior or attractionbetween people of the same sex, or to asexual orientation. As asexual orientation, homosexuality refers to "having sexual and romantic attraction  primarily or exclusively to members of one’s own sex"; "it also refers to an individual’s sense of personaland social identity based on those attractions, behaviors expressing them, and membership in acommunity of others who share them."
 Homosexuality, bisexuality,andheterosexualitytogether make up the three main classifications of sexual orientation and are part of theHeterosexual-homosexualcontinuum. The exact proportion of the population that had homosexual contact is difficult to estimatereliably,
but most recent studies place it at 2–13%
 
Sexual orientation is also distinguished from other aspects of sexuality, "includingbiological sex (the anatomical, physiological, and genetic characteristics associated with being male or female),gender identity(the psychological sense of being male, female or other ), andsocial gender role  (adherence to cultural norms defining feminine and masculine behavior)."
Etymologically, the word
homosexual 
is aGreek andLatinhybrid with
homos
(sometimesconfused with an unrelated Latin word for "man", as in 
 
) deriving from the Greek word for 
 same
, thus connoting sexual acts and affections between members of the same sex,includinglesbianism.
The word
 gay
generally refers to male homosexuality, but issometimes used in a broader sense to refer to homosexuality in general. In the context of sexuality, the word
denotes female homosexuality.There is much evidence of both acceptance and repression of homosexual behavior throughoutrecorded history. During the last several decades, there has been a trend towards increasedvisibility, recognition, and legal rights for homosexuals, including marriage and civil unions, parenting rights, and equal access to health care.Homosexuality has been a feature of human culture since earliest history (seeHistorysection below). Generally and most famously inancient Greece, certain forms of erotic attraction andsexual pleasure between males were often an ingrained, accepted part of the cultural norm.Particular sexual activities (such asanal sexin some cultures, or oral sexin others), however, were disapproved of, even as other aspects were accepted and admired. In cultures under thesway of Abrahamic religions, thelawand thechurchestablishedsodomyas a transgression against divine law, a "crime against nature", and subject to severe penalties, up tocapital  punishment— often inflicted by means of fire so as to purify the unholy action.
[
 
]
Thecondemnation of penetrative sex between males, however, predates Christian belief, as it wasfrequent in ancient Greece, whence the theme of action "against nature," traceable toPlato,originated.
In the last two decades of the 19th Century, a different view began to predominate inmedicaland psychiatriccircles, judging such behavior as indicative of a type of person with a defined andrelatively stablesexual orientation.Karl-Maria Kertbenycoined the term
homosexual 
in 1869 ina pamphlet arguing against aPrussiananti-sodomy law.
elaborated on the concept.
In 1897, British physicianHavelock Ellispublished similar views in his influential book 
Sexual  Inversion
.
Although medical texts like these (written partly in Latin to obscure the sexualdetails) were not widely read by the general public, they did lead to the rise of MagnusHirschfeld'sScientific Humanitarian Committee, which campaigned from 1897 to 1933 against anti-sodomy laws in Germany, as well as a much more informal, unpublicized movement amongBritish intellectuals and writers, led by such figures asEdward Carpenter andJohn Addington Symonds.
 
In the course of the 20th Century, homosexuality became a subject of considerable study anddebate in Western societies, especially after the moderngay rights movement began in 1969.Once viewed by authorities as a pathologyor mental illnessto be cured, homosexuality is now more often investigated as part of a larger impetus to understand the biology,  psychology,  politics,genetics,historyand cultural variations of sexual practice and identity. Thelegal and social statusof people who engage in homosexual acts or identify asgayor lesbianvaries enormously across the world, and in some places remains hotly contested in political andreligious debate.
Etymology and usage
 
)The adjective
homosexual 
describes behavior, relationships, people, orientation etc. Theadjectival form literally means "same sex", being ahybridformed fromGreek  
homo-
(a form of 
homos
"same"), and "sexual" fromMedieval Latin 
 sexualis
 sexus
). Manymodern style guides in the U.S. recommend against using
homosexual 
as a noun, instead using
 gay man
or 
lesbian
.
 Similarly, some recommend completely avoiding usage of 
homosexual 
ashaving a negative and discredited clinical history and because the word only refers to one'ssexual behavior, and not to romantic feelings.
 
Gay
and
lesbian
are the most commonalternatives. The first letters are frequently combined to create theinitialism LGBT(sometimes written as GLBT), in which
 B
and
refer tobisexualsandtransgender people. These style guides are not always followed by mainstream media sources.
The first known appearance of 
homosexual 
in print is found in an 1869 German pamphlet by theAustrian-born novelistKarl-Maria Kertbeny, published anonymously.
The prevalence of theconcept owes much to the work of the German psychiatristRichard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebingand his 1886 work 
.
As such, the current use of the term has its roots inthe broader 19th century tradition of personality taxonomy. These continue to influence thedevelopment of the modern concept of sexual orientation,gaining associations withromantic loveandidentityin addition to its original, exclusively sexual meaning. Although early writers also used the adjective
homosexual 
to refer to any single-sex context(such as an all-girls' school), today the term is used exclusively in reference to sexual attractionand activity. The term
 is now used to describe single-sex contexts that are not
 
specifically sexual. There is also a word referring to same-sex love,
.Other termsinclude
or 
MSM 
(used in the medical community when specificallydiscussing sexual activity),
(referring to works of art),
(referring to a person who identifies as heterosexual, but occasionally engages in same-sex sexual activities),and 
(referring to a non-gay man with stereotypically gay tastes in food, fashion, anddesign). Pejorative terms in English include
, 
,
, 
, and
. Beginning inthe 1990s, some of these have been "reclaimed" as positive words by gay men and lesbians, as inthe usage of queer studies,queer theory,and even the popular American television program
.The word
homo
occurs in many other languages without the pejorative connotations it has in English.
As withethnic slursandracial slurs,however, the misuse of these terms can still be highly offensive; the range of acceptable use depends on thecontext and speaker. Conversely,
 gay
, a word originally embraced by homosexual men andwomen as a positive, affirmative term (as ingay liberationandgay rights), has come into widespread pejorative useamong young people.
Sexuality
Homosexuality is a broad term which includes several aspects of same-sexsexuality, such assexual orientation,sexual identity, andsexual behaviors.
Homosexual orientation
Homosexuality as asexual orientationrefers to "an enduring pattern of or disposition toexperience sexual, affectional, or romantic attractions primarily to" people of the same sex; "italso refers to an individual’s sense of personal and social identity based on those attractions, behaviors expressing them, and membership in a community of others who share them."
 
Theexact proportion of the population that is homosexual is difficult to estimate reliably,
butstudies place it at 2–7%.
It is distinguished from a bisexualor heterosexual  orientation.Researchers have looked into a variety of possible causes for a homosexual orientation, including biological influences,  prenatal hormones,prenatal stress,fraternal birth order,andenvironmental influences.
TheAmerican Psychiatric Associationhas stated "some people believe that sexualorientation is innate and fixed; however, sexual orientation develops across a person’slifetime."
However, theAmerican Psychological Associationhas stated "most peopleexperience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation."
Sexual identity
Main article:Sexual identity
Homosexuality as a sexual identity refers to sexual identity as agayor lesbianperson. In a narrow sense, gay refers to male homosexuality, but it often is used in its broadest sense,especially in media headlines and reports, to refer to homosexuality in general. Lesbian,however, always denotes female homosexuality.Some scholars, such as David Green, state that homosexuality is a modern Western socialconstruct, and as such cannot be used in the context of non-Western male-male sexuality, nor inthe pre-modern West.

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