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SQL Ref Manual

SQL Ref Manual



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Published by yogmangela

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Published by: yogmangela on Mar 23, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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ORACLE is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). As such, the only datastructure that it supports is the TABLE. A Table is simply a two-dimensional matrix withhorizontal ROWS and vertical COLUMNS. Readers may be interested to note that a RDBMS isan implementation of Codd’s Relational Data Model and that in the literature on relationaltopics certain items are often slightly different. In particular, our Tables are called RELATIONS,our rows are called TUPLES and our columns are called ATTRIBUTES.ORACLE has one language to handle both definition and manipulation of the data.Furthermore, this same language also deals with Security aspects.This language is called SQL ( Often referred to as SeQueL or Structured Query Language).Although the trend is to provide the user of ORACLE applications with higher level user-interfaces (e.g. Forms based application screens) where no knowledge of SQL is necessary, it isessential that anyone involved in the development of ORACLE applications has a thoroughgrounding in SQL.People registered as ORACLE users will obviously wish to create and manipulate their ownTables. However, the approach taken by this introductory text will be to concentrate initiallyon the retrieval aspects of SQL. In particular, we will consider retrieval operations on somesample tables to which all users have been granted read-only access. The sample tables areEMP, DEPT, SALGRADE are described in Appendix 1.Readers wishing to define and manipulate their own tables are advised to read Chapters 7 and8.This introductory text should be used as a manual and therefore you should not attempt towork through it in sequence. An initial read through is recommended so that you get an ideaof the range of features available, after that use the manual for reference purposes only.1
ORACLE RDBMS has a number of component software parts. The component that we shalluse to familiarise ourselves with SQL is called SQLPLUS.SQLPLUS consists of the usual SQL data manipulation, definition and access statements, plusa number of extra statements for formatting, report-writing and file-handling.SQLPLUS statements are held in an SQL buffer. The current line operated on by the keyboardis known as the Command Line, but an SQL statement may spread over several lines.
2.2 Using SQLPLUS Graphical User Interface
To start the graphical user interface:Choose Start> Programs > Oracle for Windows NT > SQL Plus 8.0The Log On dialog box appears:2
Enter your user name and password (given to you in class). In the Host string part enter
.2. Click OK.The Oracle SQLPLUS application window is displayed.3

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