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01-2000-czech

01-2000-czech

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05/10/2014

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30
January 2000 
PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING & REMOTE SENSING
COLUMN
   ○   
Grids & Datums
 The contents of this column reflect the viewsof the author, who is responsible for the factsand accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect theofficial views or policies of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing and/or Louisiana State University .
Once part of the Holy Roman Em-pire, the first Czechoslovakian Repub-lic (1918-1939) was formed by Czechsand Slovaks from territories that wereformerly part of the Austro-HungarianEmpire. Those provinces wereBohemia, Moravia, Silesia and thenorthern part of Hungary settled bySlovaks and Ruthemians (Slovakia andCarpatho-Ukraine). Hitler supportedthe ethnic Germans living in theSudeten region as an excuse to theGerman annexation, which reduced itto the Protectorate of Bohemia andMoravia (1939-1945). The remainingportions of the republic were brokenup among neighboring countries dur-ing WWII. After the war, it emergedas the Second Czechoslovakian Repub-lic, but without the Carpatho-Ukraine.The USSR gained control, and Czecho-slovakia became part of the WarsawPact in 1955. Consequently, in dis-cussing the surveying and mapping of this country, a differentiation is madewith respect to the activities of fourseparate epochs,
i.e.
the First Czecho-slovakian Republic, the Protectorate,the Second Czechoslovakian Republic,and the Czech Republic. On 1Janu-ary1993, the country peacefully splitinto its two ethnic components, theCzech Republic and Slovakia.The Czech Republic is north of the Danube Valley and is largelymountainous. Bohemia, in the west,consists of rolling plains, hills, andplateaus surrounded by low moun-tains; Moravia, in the east, consistsof very hilly country. The lowestpoint of the republic is along theElbe River (115 meters), and thehighest point is Snezka (1,602meters) in the Carpathian Moun-tains.The original triangulation of theregion by first-order methods was bythe III K. und k. military triangula-tion of the Austro-Hungarian Em-pire. The cadastral grids employed by the Happsburgs were the BöhmenSoldner (Cassini-Soldner) with a
f
o
=48°02'20.5" N,
l
o
=14°08'24.15" East of Green-wich, and the Mähren Soldner witha
f
o
=48°12'32.75"N,
l
o
=16°22'36.58" East of Green-wich. No false origins were usedaccording to the European conven-tion of the time. However, the en-tire region was not covered by 1918as published in the Ergebnisse derTriangulierungen (Triangulation Re-sults). The responsibility for thesurvey activities in the First Repub-lic was divided among the followingagencies: Triangula
ni Kancela
Ministerstva Financi (TriangulationOffice of the Ministry of Finance);Katastralni M
érr 
ické U
ady (Officeof Cadaster); Nivelacni U
adMinisterstva Ve
ejnych Praci (Level-ing Office of the Ministry of PublicWorks); and Vojenský SemepisnýÚstav (Military Geographic Insti-tute). The duties of the civilianagencies had some overlap amongthemselves as well as with the mili-tary, but the records of all agenciescould be utilized for military pur-poses. The territory was covered bythe old cadastral triangulations withorigins at Gusterberg, St. StephanTower (Vienna), Gellerthegy,Pschow, and coordinates referring toVienna University Datum, St. AnnaDatum, and Hermannskogel Datum.A new first-order net was started in1936 and was completed in 1956.The basic cadastral trigonometricnet was connected with the first-or-der nets of Austria, Germany, Po-land, and Romania (through theCarpatho-Ukraine and Slovakia). Be-tween 1918 and 1932, the MilitaryGeographic Institute (MGI) appliedthe Lambert conformal conic projec-tion for triangulation computationsand mapping. This was based on theHermannskogel Datum of 1871 refer-enced to the Bessel1841 ellipsoid of revolution where the semi-major axis(a)=6,377,397.155meters and the re-ciprocal of flattening (1/f)=299.1528128. TheHermannskogel1871 Datum has itsorigin with
f
o
=48°16'15.29"N,
l
o
=33°57' 41.06" Est de I’lle de Fer(East of Ferro Island in the Canaries),where Ferro=17°39'46.02"East of Greenwich and azimuth to stationHundsheimer is
a
o
=107°31'41.7".The secant Lambert Grid had thestandard parallels of 
f
N
=50°15'Nand
f
S
=48°30'N, a Central Merid-ian (
l
o
)=35°45'East of Ferro, aFalseEasting=1,000 km, and aFalseNorthing=500km. Thispoint corresponds to the center of the southern sheet line of the1:75,000 sheet titled “4260Vsetin.”Professor Ing. Josef Krøvák (com-monly spelled K
ovák or Krovak)prepared the Conformal ObliqueConic Projection of Czechoslovakiain 1922 for the preparation of cadas-tral (tax) maps and topographicmaps of medium scales for the civilgeodetic service of Czechoslovakia.The “starting meridian” was termedFerro where the MGI usage differedfrom the civilian definition listedabove. The MGI used the relation:Ferro=17°39'45.90"East of Green-wich. The Krovak Projection is adouble projection in that the ob-lique conic is projected from theGaussian Sphere where theradius=6,380,703.6105meters.The Gaussian Sphere was “in-vented” by Carl Friederich Gauss,and is also commonly known as the“conformal sphere.” It is simply
THE CZECH REPUBLIC
CLIFFORD J. MUGNIER, C.P., C.M.S.

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