21.1.2 Routine Factory Production Tests
These are conducted to prove that relays are free fromdefects during manufacture. Testing will take place atseveral stages during manufacture, to ensure problemsare discovered at the earliest possible time and henceminimise remedial work. The extent of testing will bedetermined by the complexity of the relay and pastmanufacturing experience.
21.1.3 Commissioning Tests
These tests are designed to prove that a particularprotection scheme has been installed correctly prior tosetting to work. All aspects of the scheme arethoroughly checked, from installation of the correctequipment through wiring checks and operation checksof the individual items of equipment, finishing withtesting of the complete scheme.
21.1.4 Periodic Maintenance Checks
These are required to identify equipment failures anddegradation in service, so that corrective action can betaken. Because a protection scheme only operates underfault conditions, defects may not be revealed for asignificant period of time, until a fault occurs. Regulartesting assists in detecting faults that would otherwiseremain undetected until a fault occurs.
21.2 ELECTRICAL TYPE TESTS
Various electrical type tests must be performed, asfollows:
21.2.1 Functional Tests
The functional tests consist of applying the appropriateinputs to the relay under test and measuring theperformance to determine if it meets the specification.They are usually carried out under controlledenvironmental conditions. The testing may be extensive,even where only a simple relay function is being tested.,as can be realised by considering the simple overcurrentrelay element of Table 21.1.To determine compliance with the specification, the testslisted in Table 21.2 are required to be carried out. This isa time consuming task, involving many engineers andtechnicians. Hence it is expensive.When a modern numerical relay with many functions isconsidered, each of which has to be type-tested, thefunctional type-testing involved is a major issue. In thecase of a recent relay development project, it wascalculated that if one person had to do all the work, itwould take 4 years to write the functional type-testspecifications, 30 years to perform the tests and severalyears to write the test reports that result. Automatedtechniques/ equipment are clearly required, and arecovered in Section 21.7.2.
R e l a y T e s t i n g a n d C o m m i s s i o n i n g
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0.08 - 4.00In0.01In
0.08 - 32In0.01InDirectionalityForward/Reverse/Non-directionalRCA-95°to +95°1°CharacteristicDT/IDMTDefinite Time Delay0 - 100s0.01sIEC IDMT Time DelayIEC Standard InverseIEC Very InverseIEC Extremely InverseUK Long Time InverseTime Multiplier Setting (TMS)0.025 - 1.20.025IEEE Moderately InverseIEEE Very InverseIEEE IDMT Time DelayIEEE Extremely InverseUS-CO8 InverseUS-CO2 Short Time InverseTime Dial (TD)0.5 - 150.1IEC Reset Time (DT only)0 - 100s0.01sIEEE Reset TimeIDMT/DTIEEE DT Reset Time0 - 100s0.01sIEEE Moderately InverseIEEE Very InverseIEEE IDMT Reset TimeIEEE Extremely InverseUS-CO8InverseUS-CO2 Short Time Inverse
Table 21.1: Overcurrent relay element specificationTable 21.2: Overcurrent relay element functional type tests
Test 1Test 2Test 3Test 4Test 5Test 6Test 7Test 8Test 9Test 10Test 11Test 12Test 13Test 14Three phase non-directional pick up and drop off accuracyover complete current setting range for both stagesThree phase directional pick up and drop off accuracyover complete RCA setting range in the forward direction,current angle sweepThree phase directional pick up and drop off accuracyover complete RCA setting range in the reverse direction,current angle sweepThree phase directional pick up and drop off accuracyover complete RCA setting range in the forward direction,voltage angle sweepThree phase directional pick up and drop off accuracyover complete RCA setting range in the reverse direction,voltage angle sweepThree phase polarising voltage threshold testAccuracy of DT timer over complete setting rangeAccuracy of IDMT curves over claimed accuracy rangeAccuracy of IDMT TMS/TDEffect of changing fault current on IDMT operating timesMinimum Pick-Up of Starts and Trips for IDMT curvesAccuracy of reset timersEffect of any blocking signals, opto inputs, VTS, Autoreclose Voltage polarisation memory
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