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APEH, WWI

APEH, WWI

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Published by Julie
A brief, general description of the events leading up, during, and after World War I.
A brief, general description of the events leading up, during, and after World War I.

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Published by: Julie on Mar 24, 2009
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06/14/2009

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http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP European History
The Great War (World War I)
World War I brought about the demise of great empires such as Russia, Austria-Hungary,Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. Others experienced a decline in power, such as GreatBritain and France. It was the first “total war,” involving mass civilian populations in a wareffort that involved rationing, war plants, and propaganda.
 A.J.P. Taylor
is a traditionalist-type historian who looks at the “whole picture,” such as thelong-term causes of the Great War.
Stoessinger
looked at the personalities behind the leaders.For example, he noted the indecisive nature of Nicholas I and Frederick Wilhelm’s mercurialnature.CAUSES OF THE WARThe long-term causes of the Great War were militarism, nationalism, imperialism, and systemsof alliances.
Militarism
consisted of the escalating arms race between Great Britain and Germany, withGermany building a navy to rival that of the British navy. Build-up of arms and weapons,including artillery shells, bombs, rifles, and artillery, caused international pressures in Europeto worsen.The
system of alliances
resulted in many countries being pulled into the war because of theirallies. In the Dual Alliance, Germany allied with Austria-Hungary (Italy joined in 1882).Additionally, in the
dreikaiserbund 
,
Otto von Bismarck
formed an alliance between Russia,Austria, and Germany. Later, in the Triple Alliance Germany allied with Austria and Germanyto create the
Central Powers
. Italy would switch sides in 1915. In the Entente-Cordiale, Franceallied with Britain. In 1907, Britain allied with Russia. As a result, the Triple Entente emergedbetween Russia, England, and France. They, along with the United States, became the
 AlliedPowers
.
Imperialism
is the political and economic domination of one country by another. EachEuropean country was competing for overseas possessions in order to expand their economies.In the Moroccan Crisis, Germany attempted to break up relations between France and Britain.
 
In 1905, the French made the Sultan promise reforms in the police and army under theguidance of French experts.
 
Germany then pledged support for a Moroccan independence movement. TheGermans demanded the resignation of Delcassé, the influential Foreign Minister of France. They also demanded an international conference on Morocco.
 
The French agreed to both the resignation and conference. Britain warned Germanythat an attack on France could lead to British intervention.
 
http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP European History
The Great War (World War I)
 
At the Algeciras Conference, Germany was nearly isolated, with only Austria-Hungaryas a supporter.
 
In the Second Moroccan Crisis, the German government sent a gunboat, the
Panther  
tothe port of Agadir. This pressured France, as Germany wanted the French Congo forGerman recognition of a French protectorate over Morocco.
 
Britain once again supported France and Germany backed down for minor concessionsin equatorial Africa.
Nationalism
caused leaders and countries to take action in the interests of national pride. Anexample was the
pan-Slavic
movement that sought to unite all Slavic peoples. Similarly, Italywas interested in fulfilling the
Irrindentia
– the idea of one Italian government ruling theItalian people.Otto von Bismarck said that Europe would be thrown into war because of “some damn foolthing in the Balkans...” While in Sarajevo, capital of the Austrian province of Bosnia,
 ArchdukeFranz Ferdinand
, heir to the Austrian throne, was assassinated by
Gavrilio Princip
. This waspart of a plot by the “Union or Death” organization, better known as the
Black Hand
society, aterrorist group dedicated to pan-Slavism. The monarch of Austria,
Franz Joseph
, is aging –Austria is really controlled by
Leopold von Bercholt
and
Conrad Holtzendorff 
. They wouldlike to go to war in order to regain Austria’s old glory.
Kaiser Wilhelm
of Germany, led by his emotions, issues a
blank check
, guaranteeing Germansupport to eh Austrians. As a result, Bercholt and Holtzendorff issue an ultimatum to Serbiathat is meant to be rejected. They quickly declare war on Serbia, resulting in Germany alsodeclaring war. Germany had believed Russia would not support their fellow Slavs becauseregicide had been committed – they were wrong, and Russia began mobilization. Germanydeclared war on Russia. In accordance to their previous treaty, France supported Russia anddeclared war on Germany, followed by Britain declaring war on Germany. Despite the
Nicky-Willy
telegrams between the monarchs of Russia and Germany, the war could not be stopped.Germany Austria RussiaKaiser Wilhelm II Franz Joseph Nicholas IIChancellor: TheoboldBethman-HollwegForeign Minister: CountLeopold von BerchtoldForeign Minster: SergeiSazonovChief of Staff: Helmuth vonMoltkeChief of Staff: Conrad vonHötzendorff Minister of War: VladimirSukhomlinov

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