http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP European History
The Great War (World War I)
World War I brought about the demise of great empires such as Russia, Austria-Hungary,Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. Others experienced a decline in power, such as GreatBritain and France. It was the first “total war,” involving mass civilian populations in a wareffort that involved rationing, war plants, and propaganda.
is a traditionalist-type historian who looks at the “whole picture,” such as thelong-term causes of the Great War.
looked at the personalities behind the leaders.For example, he noted the indecisive nature of Nicholas I and Frederick Wilhelm’s mercurialnature.CAUSES OF THE WARThe long-term causes of the Great War were militarism, nationalism, imperialism, and systemsof alliances.
consisted of the escalating arms race between Great Britain and Germany, withGermany building a navy to rival that of the British navy. Build-up of arms and weapons,including artillery shells, bombs, rifles, and artillery, caused international pressures in Europeto worsen.The
system of alliances
resulted in many countries being pulled into the war because of theirallies. In the Dual Alliance, Germany allied with Austria-Hungary (Italy joined in 1882).Additionally, in the
Otto von Bismarck
formed an alliance between Russia,Austria, and Germany. Later, in the Triple Alliance Germany allied with Austria and Germanyto create the
. Italy would switch sides in 1915. In the Entente-Cordiale, Franceallied with Britain. In 1907, Britain allied with Russia. As a result, the Triple Entente emergedbetween Russia, England, and France. They, along with the United States, became the
is the political and economic domination of one country by another. EachEuropean country was competing for overseas possessions in order to expand their economies.In the Moroccan Crisis, Germany attempted to break up relations between France and Britain.
In 1905, the French made the Sultan promise reforms in the police and army under theguidance of French experts.
Germany then pledged support for a Moroccan independence movement. TheGermans demanded the resignation of Delcassé, the influential Foreign Minister of France. They also demanded an international conference on Morocco.
The French agreed to both the resignation and conference. Britain warned Germanythat an attack on France could lead to British intervention.