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Seed Health Testing for Vegetables

Seed Health Testing for Vegetables

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Fungal and Bacterial Seed Health Testing Protocols for Vegetables in Pakistan.
Fungal and Bacterial Seed Health Testing Protocols for Vegetables in Pakistan.

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Published by: Muhammad Boota Sarwar on Apr 15, 2013
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Fungal and Bacterial SeedHealth Testing Protocols forVegetables
Edited By
 Muhammad Boota Sarwar 
Federal Seed Certification & Registration DepartmentFungal and Bacterial Seed Health Testing Protocols for Vegetables
[Type text]
 
A high quality seed is an essential prerequisite for sustainable and profitable vegetable production. Farmers have to deal with significant loss due to infection with serious seed- borne pathogens on their plants, which may start from germinating seed, seedling in thenursery, grown plants in the field and proceed till the products are kept in the storage. Healthconditions of seeds are crucial information for all users, especially to make up decision of necessary treatment. High quality seed is not only need to be true to type, but also clean fromcontaminants, should have a high viability, and should be healthy (free from any pathogen) .In order to achieve a high quality seed, many countries have applied a routine testing of seed- borne diseases as an integral part of seed testing, seed certification and are considered as atool for entire seed-borne disease control program. The requirement of PhytosanitaryCertificate for Seed trade among regions and countries has also increased importance of seedhealth testing. Vegetable seeds produced in Pakistan or imported have not yet appliedinternational standards for the presence of plant pathogens, neither to eradicate these pathogens despite of the fact that vegetable seeds are contaminated with various seed-borne pathogens. Government agencies are in position to have a better understanding of producingand controlling healthy seed. Therefore, there is dire need to make an effort to develop andapply detection methods for economically seed-borne diseases on vegetables, diseases controlin the field and seed lot, seed treatment to minimise and avoid pathogen contaminant, and toallow establishment the standard of health vegetable seeds based on the internationalregulation adopted from International Seed testing Association (ISTA).Vegetables' are not only vital for healthy diets and productive lives but also vital for strongeconomies. According to FAO World production of vegetables is over 193919100 million pounds while China, Egypt, India, U.S.A are the largest vegetables producers all over theworld (6).Potato, Tomato, onion, egg plant, carrot, lettuce, pumpkin, squash, guards are the major vegetables grown through out the world. (28).Production of vegetables is becoming profitableAgri. business in Pakistan.Agro ecological conditions of Pakistan are best suited for most of the vegetables. In the year 2006 these were grown over an area of 2386000 hectares with production of 30485000 tones. The major Kharif vegetables include Lady Finger,Squash(Tinda),Brinjal,Bitter Gourd,Bottle Gourd,Pumpkin,Lufa ,LongMelon,Cucumber,Pursilano ,Arum ,Beans,Field. Vetch, Lotus and Tomatoes. While Rabbivegetables include Radish Turnip,Carrot,Spinach,Cauliflower,Cabbage Sweet Patato,PeasGarden Peas,Kanol Kohl, Fennu Greek, Lettuce, Sugar Beet and Tomatoes (1).
1.Diseases of vegetables, identification and management:
1.1.1.Wherever the vegetables are grown they are subjected to different diseasesthat seriously reduce both the yield and market value. Before establishing andapplying any management practice it is important to understand the biology of seed borne disease. Seed borne diseases are caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses andnematodes. In most of the seed borne diseases infected seed is the primary source of inoculum and if it is controlled the disease is controlled (33). In some diseases the pathogen is devastating in field but the disease is not seed borne. Some Pathogens arealso infecting seeds in fields or in storage, and reduce seed quality. Some importantvegetables seed borne diseases are given in Table 1.
Table 1Some important seed borne fungal and bacterial diseases of vegetables
[Type text]
 
S.No.
Family/crop(3)Botanical name(3)Diseases(26,31,19)Causal organism
 
Umbelliferae
 
Bacterial Blight
 Xanthomonas compestris pv.Carotae
1Carrot
 Daucus carota
Alternaria diseases
 Alternaria dauci, Alternariaradicina
2Coriande
Coriandrum sativum
Cercospora leaf spot
Cersospora carotae
 
Alliaceae
 
Grey mold
 Aspergillus flavus, A.niger 
3Onoin
 Allium cepa
Scape blight/neck rot
 Botrytis alli, B. squamosa, B. cinerea, B. byssoidea
4Garlic
 Allium sativum
Bacterial soft rot
 Dickeya zeae(Pectobacteriumchrysanthemi)
Fusarium basal rot
 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.cepae
 
Cruciferae
 
Alternaria diseases
 Alternaria brassicae, Alternaria brassicicola
5Raddish
 Raphanus sativus
Ring spot
 Mycroshaerella brassicicola
6Turnip
 Brassica rapa
Black leg
 Phoma lingam
7Cabage
 Brassica rapa
Black rot
 Xanthomonas compestris pvcompestris
8cauliflowe
 Brassica oleracea
Leaf blight
 Xanthomonas compestris pvraphani
wilt
Verticillium dahliae, V.alboatrum, Fusariummoniliforme, F. oxysporum
 
Chenopodiacea
 
Cladosporium leaf spot
Cladosporium variable
9Spinach
Spinacia oleracea
Stemphylium leaf spot
Stemphyllium botryosum
10Beet
 Beta vulgaris
Anthracnose
Colletotrichum dematium, C. spinaciae
 
Solanaceae
 
Black leg/soft rot
 Erwinia carotovora
11Potato
Solanum tuberosum
Black scurf 
 Rhizoctonia solani
Dry rot
 Fusarium sambucinum, F. solani
Brown rot
 Ralstonia solanacearum
Scab
Streptomyces scabies
wilt
 Ralstonia solanacearum
12Tomato
 Lycopersicumesculentum
wilt
 Ralstonia solanacearum
Early blight
 Alternaria solani
Fruit rot
 Alternaria tenuis
13Chillies
Capsicum annuum
Fruit rot
 Alternaria tenuissima
wilt
 Ralstonia solanacearum
14Brinjal
Solanummelongena
wilt
 Ralstonia solanacearum
 
Leguminosae
 
Ascochyta complex
 Ascochyta pisi, Phomamedicagnis, Mycosphaerella pinodes
15Peas
 Pisum sativum
Grey mold
 Botrytis cinerea
Bacterial blight
 Psudomonas syringae pv pisi
2.Seed health testing
[Type text]

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