Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Emcore Manuscript Fatemi 3P-B5-03 WCPEC-3

Emcore Manuscript Fatemi 3P-B5-03 WCPEC-3

Ratings: (0)|Views: 11|Likes:
Emcore Manuscript Fatemi 3P-B5-03 WCPEC-3
Emcore Manuscript Fatemi 3P-B5-03 WCPEC-3

More info:

Published by: AWe Shinkansen Syamroni on Apr 15, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/27/2014

pdf

text

original

 
 
THE DEVELOPMENT OF >28% EFFICIENT TRIPLE-JUNCTION SPACE SOLAR CELLS ATEMCORE PHOTOVOLTAICS
Mark A. Stan, Daniel Aiken, Paul R. Sharps, Jennifer Hills, Brad Clevenger, & Navid S. FatemiEmcore Photovoltaics, 10420 Research Rd., Albuquerque, NM 87123, USAnavid_fatemi@emcore.com
Abstract
Emcore Photovoltaics has been in volume productionof high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells for spacecraftapplications since 1999. Emcore’s current heritageproduct is the advanced triple-junction (ATJ) n/pInGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cell. The ATJ cell exhibits abeginning-of-life (BOL) minimum average conversionefficiency of 27.5%, under air-mass zero (AM0)illumination conditions, making it the highest efficiencyflight cell available in the market to date. The efficienciesof flight cells in a ship lot range from approximately26.0% to 29.5%. A new version of the ATJ cell that isalso in volume production at Emcore, incorporates amonolithically integrated p/n GaAs bypass diode. Thiscell is called the ATJM. Using the ATJM cell as thebaseline platform, an optimized solar cell is beingdeveloped that is mechanically identical to the heritageATJM cell, but exhibiting a minimum average efficiencyof about 28.5%. The development lots of this 2
nd
 generation ATJM exhibit typical BOL performanceparameters of Voc of 2,650 mV, Jsc of 17.3 mA/cm
2
, andfill factor of 84%, under illuminated AM0 conditions. Inthis paper, the manufacturing aspects of the ATJ & ATJMcells, as well as, the development aspects of the 2
nd
 generation ATJM solar cells will be presented.
Introduction
High-efficiency III-V compound semiconductormulti-junction solar cells have been providing power forearth-orbiting satellites, as well as, interplanetaryprograms for many years. Higher conversion efficiencyand better radiation hardness of the multi-junction cells, ascompared to the traditional silicon cells, are the primaryfactors why these cells are attractive to a whole host of users. In applications where the solar panel area isrestricted or high power demands are required, multi- junction cells are typically employed.The efficiency and radiation hardness of multi- junction solar cells have significantly improved in recentyears [1-3]. In the late 1990s, for example, the highestefficiency cells in volume production in the space solarmarket approached the 25% mark. Currently, it stands atgreater than 27%. Concurrently, the unit price of thesecells have also declined, leading to a much improved cost($) per watt.Currently, Emcore Photovoltaics is in volumeproduction of high-efficiency triple-junction (TJ),advanced triple-junction (ATJ), and ATJ with amonolithicallyintegrated diode (ATJM) solar cells for space flightapplications. The minimum BOL lot average efficiencyfor these cell types are 26.0%, 27.5%, and 27.5%,respectively. These multi-junction cells are of n/p polarityand are composed of InGaP/(In)GaAs III-V compoundsepitaxially grown on Ge wafers. In this paper, we willdescribe the performance and manufacturing aspects of the ATJ & ATJM cells. As well, data will be presentedfor the development of the next generation ATJM cellwith a targeted minimum average efficiency of 28.5%.
Experiment
 
The InGaP/InGaAs/Ge advanced triple-junction(ATJ) solar cells are epitaxially grown via the Emcoremade E400 and E450 production organo-metalic chemicalvapor deposition (OMCVD) reactors on 140-
µ
muniformly thick germanium substrates. A schematic cross-sectional diagram of the solar cell structure is shown inFigure 1.Fig. 1 – Cross-sectional schematic diagram of theInGaP/InGaAs/Ge ATJ cellThe solar cell structures are grown on 100-mmdiameter (4 inch) Ge substrates with an average massdensity of about 86 mg/cm
2
. The epitaxial layeruniformity across a platter that holds 12 or 13 Gesubstrates during the OMCVD growth process is betterthan 99.5%. Each wafer typically yields two large-areasolar cells. The cell areas that are processed forproduction typically range from 26.6 to 32.4 cm
2
.The epi-wafers are processed into complete devicesthrough automated robotic photolithography,metallization, chemical cleaning and etching, anti-reflection (AR) coating, dicing, and testing processes.The n- & p-contact metallization is mostly comprised of 
GaAs Contact Layer Metal GridAR CoatingWindow
n
+
 
WindowEmitter
n
+
 
InGaPBase
p
InGaPBSF
p
+
 
BSFTunnel Junction
p++/n++
Window
n+
WindowEmitter
n
+
 
InGaP
 
Base
p
InGaAsBSF
p
+
 
BSFTunnel Junction
p++/n++
 
 
Buffer/Nucleation
n
GaAsEmitter
n
+
 
GeBase
p
GeSubstrate
p
GeMetallization
 


 
 
Ag with a thin Au cap layer to protect the Ag fromoxidation. The AR coating is a dual-layer TiO
x
 /Al
2
O
3
 dielectric stack, whose spectral reflectivity characteristicsare designed to minimize reflection at the coverglass-interconnect-cell (CIC) or solar cell assembly (SCA)level, as well as, maximizing the end-of-life (EOL)performance of the cells..For best EOL performance, the cells have n-on-ppolarity, and were designed to exhibit high powerremaining factors after exposure to 1-MeV electrons.Under BOL conditions, the InGaP cell is designed to bethinner than optimum as to make the entire solar cellstructure to be current limited by the top cell. Under EOLconditions (e.g., 1-MeV electrons, 1E15 e/cm
2
), the InGaPtop cell and the middle InGaAs cells are current matched.The Ge bottom cell typically produces enough excesscurrent as to be of no concern in the EOL optimizationdesign. The InGaP top and InGaAs middle cells arelattice matched to the Ge substrate
.
Advanced Triple-Junction (ATJ) Solar CellProduction
Emcore has been in volume production of ATJsolar cells since late 2001. Greater than 60,000 large-areacells have been shipped for both LEO & GEO flightprograms. The minimum average BOL lot efficiency forthe flight cells are 27.5% (28
°
C, one-sun, 135.3mW/cm2), with efficiencies ranging from about 26.0% to29.5%. A typical current-voltage (I-V) plot of the ATJcell is shown in Figure 2. An efficiency histogram of production ATJ cells is also shown in Fig. 3.Fig. 2 – Typical ATJ illuminated I-V plot(Cell area of 27.5 cm
2
)
 
The superior electrical performance of the ATJ cellin comparison to the TJ cell, for example, is illustrated inFig. 4, where typical external quantum efficiency (QE)results for the ATJ and TJ cells are shown. As seen in thefigure, significant gains were realized in the “blue”response of the bottom Ge cell, as well as, the “red”response of the top InGaP cell. In addition, theconventional GaAs middle cell was replaced with anInGaAs cell for the ATJ. Unlike GaAs, the InGaAs layers(~ 1.5% In concentration) are “perfectly” lattice-matchedto the Ge substrate.
The ATJ solar cell was designed to exhibit the bestEOL performance. As part of a comprehensivespace qualification program, ATJ cells wereexposed to 1-MeV electron irradiation at fluences of 5E13, 1E14, 5E14, 1E15, and 3E15 e/cm
2
. The cellswere also exposed to 0.6, 1, 2, and 12 MeVelectrons, as well as, to 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 2.5, and 10MeV protons. The full results for the proton andelectron irradiation tests, including the relativedamage coefficients (RDC) are complied in aninternal Emcore report that is available for customerreview.
 Fig. 3 – A histogram of a typical shipping lot(>70,000 ATJ flight cells)Fig. 4 – Typical external quantum efficiencycomparison for the TJ and ATJ cellsThe ATJ solar cell was designed to exhibit the bestEOL performance. As part of a comprehensive spacequalification program, ATJ cells were exposed to 1-MeVelectron irradiation at fluences of 5E13, 1E14, 5E14,1E15, and 3E15 e/cm
2
. The cells were also exposed to 0.6,1, 2, and 12 MeV electrons, as well as, to 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 1,2.5, and 10 MeV protons. The full results for the protonand electron irradiation tests, including the relative
01020304050607080901003005007009001100130015001700Wavelength (nm)
   Q  u  a  n   t  u  m    E   f   f   i  c   i  e  n  c  y   (   %   )



            
Average Efficiency = 27.58%
Efficiency Range= 26.0% to 29.5%>71,000 Cells*
262728290200040006000800010000
      C     e      l      l     s
Efficency
 
   N  o .  o   f   C  e   l   l  s
AM0 Efficiency (%)
Typical Advanced Triple-Junction Solar Cell
Voc = 2600 mVIsc = 468 mAFF = 84.2%Eff. = 27.5%
-0.6-0.4-0.200.20.4-2-10123
Voltage (V)Current(A)
 
 
damage coefficients (RDC) are complied in an internalEmcore report that is available for customer review.The remaining power factors after 1-MeV electronexposure for fluence levels of 5E14 & 1E15 e/cm
2
were0.89 & 0.85, respectively. As a result, for a typical GEOmission of 15-20 years, the solar cell degradation inoutput power is estimated to be in the range of 11–15%.
ATJM Solar Cells
 The ATJM cell is created by the addition of p/nhomo-junction GaAs layers on the surface of the ATJ cell.The monolithically integrated GaAs diode protects the cellover which it resides during circuit shadow conditions inspace. During the processing of the ATJM, the additionalp/n GaAs diode layers are removed from the activesurface areas of the cell, except where the smallmonolithic diode pad is to be located. To maximize diodereliability, except for the metal weld pad, all exposedareas of the diode are protected by the AR-coatingdielectric layers. The stringing interconnects welded to thediode pad complete the circuit. This is illustrated infigures 5 and 6, where a schematic cross-sectionaldiagram & a photograph of an ATJM solar cell are shown,respectively.Fig. 5 – Cross-sectional schematic of the ATJM cellSincFig. 6 – ATJM solar cell with welded interconnectse Since the active cell components of the ATJ &ATJM are identical, the electrical performance of ATJMis the same as the ATJ in volume production (see Fig. 3).Typical forward turn on voltage for the monolithic diodeis about 1.8 V.The monolithic diode is also designed forrobustness and low reverse bias leakage current. This isillustrated in Fig. 7, where the reverse biascharacteristics of the ATJM diode is compared toconventional diodes (homo-junction or Schottky type).As seen in the figure, the diode leakage current is limitedto extremely low values of less than 1
µ
A at reverse biasof up to 30 volts.Fig. 7 – Dark reverse bias characteristics of the ATJMmonolithic diode
2
nd
Generation ATJM Solar Cells
A development program was initiated at Emcore tooptimize the performance of the ATJM solar cell. Thefocus of this effort was to achieve higher solar cellelectrical performance mainly through the optimization of the OMCVD epitaxial growth parameters and conditions.Since the solar cell device performances is a strongfunction of the epitaxial growth temperatures and rates,active gas flows, and other parameters, rigorous control of these conditions can result in epi-layers that have lowdefect density levels. The epi-layers are thereforecharacterized extensively both during (
in-situ
) & after thegrowth process. A summary of several tests that areperformed to assure epi-layer quality is shown in Table I.Table I – Epi-layer characterization tests
Test Measurement
 In Situ
Reflectrometry Epi-Layer QualitySurfscan Particles, Haze, DefectsPL- Mapping Bandgap & Thickness UniformityX-Ray Compsition & Lattice-MatchingPolaron Profiler Thickness & Doping
-100-90-80-70-60-50-40-30-20-100-35-30-25-20-15-10-50
Reverse Bias Voltage, volts
   C  u  r  r  e  n   t ,  a  m  p  s

 
-100-90-80-70-60-50-40-30-20-100-35-30-25-20-15-10-50
Reverse Bias Voltage, volts
   C  u  r  r  e  n   t ,   M   i  c  r  o   A  m  p

 Metal Padp-GaAsn-GaAsMetal Grid n
+
-GaInP
2
layern
+
-GaAs n
+
-GaAs AR Coating 
 
ATJ Solar Cell ATJ Solar Cellp-Ge SubstrateMetal Contact
 


Monolithic DiodePadn-Contact Padsn-Contact Pads
 


You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->