Ag with a thin Au cap layer to protect the Ag fromoxidation. The AR coating is a dual-layer TiO
dielectric stack, whose spectral reflectivity characteristicsare designed to minimize reflection at the coverglass-interconnect-cell (CIC) or solar cell assembly (SCA)level, as well as, maximizing the end-of-life (EOL)performance of the cells..For best EOL performance, the cells have n-on-ppolarity, and were designed to exhibit high powerremaining factors after exposure to 1-MeV electrons.Under BOL conditions, the InGaP cell is designed to bethinner than optimum as to make the entire solar cellstructure to be current limited by the top cell. Under EOLconditions (e.g., 1-MeV electrons, 1E15 e/cm
), the InGaPtop cell and the middle InGaAs cells are current matched.The Ge bottom cell typically produces enough excesscurrent as to be of no concern in the EOL optimizationdesign. The InGaP top and InGaAs middle cells arelattice matched to the Ge substrate
Advanced Triple-Junction (ATJ) Solar CellProduction
Emcore has been in volume production of ATJsolar cells since late 2001. Greater than 60,000 large-areacells have been shipped for both LEO & GEO flightprograms. The minimum average BOL lot efficiency forthe flight cells are 27.5% (28
C, one-sun, 135.3mW/cm2), with efficiencies ranging from about 26.0% to29.5%. A typical current-voltage (I-V) plot of the ATJcell is shown in Figure 2. An efficiency histogram of production ATJ cells is also shown in Fig. 3.Fig. 2 – Typical ATJ illuminated I-V plot(Cell area of 27.5 cm
The superior electrical performance of the ATJ cellin comparison to the TJ cell, for example, is illustrated inFig. 4, where typical external quantum efficiency (QE)results for the ATJ and TJ cells are shown. As seen in thefigure, significant gains were realized in the “blue”response of the bottom Ge cell, as well as, the “red”response of the top InGaP cell. In addition, theconventional GaAs middle cell was replaced with anInGaAs cell for the ATJ. Unlike GaAs, the InGaAs layers(~ 1.5% In concentration) are “perfectly” lattice-matchedto the Ge substrate.
The ATJ solar cell was designed to exhibit the bestEOL performance. As part of a comprehensivespace qualification program, ATJ cells wereexposed to 1-MeV electron irradiation at fluences of 5E13, 1E14, 5E14, 1E15, and 3E15 e/cm
. The cellswere also exposed to 0.6, 1, 2, and 12 MeVelectrons, as well as, to 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 2.5, and 10MeV protons. The full results for the proton andelectron irradiation tests, including the relativedamage coefficients (RDC) are complied in aninternal Emcore report that is available for customerreview.
Fig. 3 – A histogram of a typical shipping lot(>70,000 ATJ flight cells)Fig. 4 – Typical external quantum efficiencycomparison for the TJ and ATJ cellsThe ATJ solar cell was designed to exhibit the bestEOL performance. As part of a comprehensive spacequalification program, ATJ cells were exposed to 1-MeVelectron irradiation at fluences of 5E13, 1E14, 5E14,1E15, and 3E15 e/cm
. The cells were also exposed to 0.6,1, 2, and 12 MeV electrons, as well as, to 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 1,2.5, and 10 MeV protons. The full results for the protonand electron irradiation tests, including the relative
Q u a n t u m E f f i c i e n c y ( % )
Average Efficiency = 27.58%
Efficiency Range= 26.0% to 29.5%>71,000 Cells*
C e l l s