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Newton

Newton

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Published by TB
As u all know Isaac Newton contributed a lot in physics, mathematics
so i just tried to know much more about him
here is what i got about him...
simply a biography on Newton ::D
enjoy :)
As u all know Isaac Newton contributed a lot in physics, mathematics
so i just tried to know much more about him
here is what i got about him...
simply a biography on Newton ::D
enjoy :)

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: TB on Mar 24, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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07/10/2013

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Introduction
Newton was born inWoolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, inEngland. Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727), English physicist,mathematician, and naturalphilosopher, considered one of the most important scientists of all time. Newton formulated lawsof universal gravitation andmotion—laws that explain howobjects move on Earth as well asthrough the heavens (Mechanics). He established themodern study of optics—or the behavior of light—andbuilt the first reflecting telescope. His mathematicalinsights led him to invent the area of mathematicscalled calculus.Newton stated his ideas in several publishedworks, two of which, Philosophiae Naturalis PrincipiaMathematica (Mathematical Principles of NaturalPhilosophy, 1687) and Opticks (1704), are consideredamong the greatest scientific works ever produced.Newton’s revolutionary contributions explained theworkings of a large part of the physical world inmathematical terms, and they suggested thatscience may provide explanations for otherphenomena as well.Published in 1687, Newton’s two-volumePhilosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica(Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy)contains his important three laws of motion, alsocalled Newton’s laws, excerpted here.Newton carried
 
Galileo’s equation forward by introducing the conceptof force. He began by restating Galileo’s law of inertia as a situation applying to the absence of force. Newton’s first law states “A body in motionremains in motion (with constant velocity) unlessacted upon by an external force.” Rest, in Newton’slaws, is merely an example of motion with zerovelocity. So force is defined as the agency thatchanges the state of motion, and thus the velocity, of a body.Newton’s famous second law relates a to a forceacting on the object via the equation F = ma. Thequantity m is the “stuff” inside the object, whichNewton called inertial mass. The bigger the value of m, the larger the force required to get the objectmoving—that is, accelerating. Applied to Galileo’sexperiments, F is the force of gravity tugging at theobject and aimed toward the center of Earth. F iscarefully defined as the sum of all forces.Newton’s second law accounted for the motionof planets pulled by the Sun’s gravitational force; themotion of projectiles, influenced by air and the pull of gravity; and the tides, which are caused by oceanwaters pulled by the Sun and the Moon. Newtonproved mathematically what Kepler had concludedfrom observations—that planets move in ellipticalpaths. To make this proof, he had to know the preciseform of F. F must change, depending on the distanceof the planet from the Sun. So Newton had to guessthe way the force of the Sun on a planet growsweaker as the distance between these two objectsincreases. His guess was an inverse square law,which states that the force of gravity is inverselyproportional to the square of the distance between
 
the two objects.Newton’s equations also took into account thefact that objects have two kinds of masses: inertialmass that resists motion and gravitational mass thatencourages motion. He wrote another equationillustrating that for any object, the two types of masses—gravitational mass and inertial mass—areequal. Einstein would return to this idea in hisgeneral theory of relativity, wherein he made theequality of inertia and gravitational masses a keypoint. The curious behavior of objects in space capsules,which we call weightlessness, works on the sameprinciple. The astronaut, his sandwich, and his drinkall float together, apparently without gravity. Butgravity is still pulling on the astronaut, and thecapsule, and the sandwich. They respond accordingto their inertia, and the two effects cancel each otherout.Newton’s work was vital to the evolution of modern physics.Newton's third law-" To every action, there is equaland opposite reaction".
Wave Phenomena in General
When we speak of waves, we generally think of thosewe see in the water, but there are in fact twodifferent kinds. We have already discussed this in thecontext of the transmission of seismic waves throughthe Earth’s interior but it is so important that I repeatsome of that discussion here.
Longitudinal waves,
which I demonstratedwith a `slinky toy' in class, consist of 

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