a weekly chronicle of the Chinese economy
Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future performance. The forecasts given above are predictive in character. Whilst every effort has been taken to ensure that the assumptions on which the forecasts are based arereasonable, the forecasts may be affected by incorrect assumptions or by known or unknown risks and uncertainties. The results ultimately achieved may differ substantially from these forecasts.
The economy reportedly expanded by 7.7%yr in the Marchquarter versus 7.9% in the December quarter and 7.8% incalendar 2012 and 9.3% over 2011. The NBS puts the quarterlypace at 1.6%, versus 2.0% in Q4 (unrevised), 2.1% in Q3(unrevised), 1.9% in Q2 (previously 2.0%), and 1.6% in Q1 a yearago (previously 1.5%). As detailed in the third edition of thischronicle last week,
was expecting an outcome inthe 8¼% to 8½% area, with a bias to the top of that range, andis thus feeling more than a little sheepish. The average forecastin the consensus survey was 2.0%qtr, 8.0%yr. Nominal GDPfailed to return to double digit territory, with the soft real growthrate allied to an equally surprising deceleration in the GDPdeflator conspiring to hold nominal activity down. Looking at thebreakdown from the production side of the accounts, primary(3.4%ytd from 4.5%ytd in Q4) and secondary industry (7.8%ytdfrom 8.1%ytd in Q4) decelerated from a year ago, while tertiaryactivity (8.3%ytd from 8.1%ytd in Q4) built on the gains madethrough the second half of 2012. On the expenditure side, thecontributions are 4.3ppt from final consumption (4.1ppt prior);a dramatic decline to a 2.3ppt contribution from investment(3.9ppt previously); balanced by a sharp turnaround in netexports (+1.1ppt from –0.2ppt in Q4).
The activity profile now resembles the first three strokes of a‘W’, rather than the shallow “V” that was previously sketched.The latter path made some intuitive sense, while
instincts recoil at the newly installed profile. Stating that thepulse of the economy was equivalent in the respective Marchquarters of this year and last (both now 1.6%) is just not credible- if for no other reason than the simple fact that the authoritiesmoved to tighten policy in the quarter just completed, whereasthey were in the process of easing policy settings not long afterthe first quarter of calendar 2012 was complete.
The single component that ‘contributes’ the most to bring aboutthe curious overall result is investment. The last available levelestimate for gross capital formation (GCF - fixed investmentplus the change in inventories) is from the end of 2011, when itcomprised 48.31% of GDP. Assuming that its share was steadythrough 2012, a contribution of 2.3ppts implies a growth rate just shy of 5%. Similar calculations for the four quarters of 2012yields 5% in Q1, and a troika of 8 point something outcomesin the following quarters. How do those rates compare to themonthly investment figures? Nominal urban fixed investment(FAI) converted to volumes via the NBS supplied deflator, is thekey partial for the fixed component of GCF. The ratio betweenreal FAI growth and GCF was stable around 2 from 2009through 2011, with modest fluctuations around that level drivenby the inventory cycle.
notes that there have beentwo very large outliers since the end of 2011 - March 2012 andthe latest reading - which is particularly egregious at more thantwice the usual ratio. If the ratio between real FAI and GCF hadbeen 3 - still in outlier territory, but more plausible - GDP growthwould have been 1.1ppts higher and the entire narrative thenchanges. Is there anything in the inventory cycle that couldresolve these apparent contradictions? Frankly,
feels that the inventory story points in the opposite direction.Stocks were being rebuilt in Q1 and were being run down in Q4.
Working from the assumption that the GDP numbers are ‘man-made’, in Premier Li’s immortal phrase, what was their designeraiming at? Many years ago
landed upon the
15 April 2013
Westpac Institutional Banking Group – Economic Research – email@example.com – www.westpac.com.au
maxim that what the authorities really care about they measureextremely well. However, information that directly feeds into theperformance criteria for officials cannot avoid being distorted bythe incentive structure. Alternatively, the smoothing of data canplay a role in the counter-cyclical management of expectationsand confidence. What then is the utility of a weak GDP reportdriven by a stunning collapse in investment?
canenvisage that this combination might serve the dual purposesof a) shifting the reported composition of the economy in thedesired direction to accommodate the goal of rebalancing, ifonly on paper and b) it checks the development of the positivefeedback loop operating within the private economy, asevidenced by the rise in non-bank credit growth and real estateprices in recent times. While the leash may be long, the otherend is held by a firm hand.
will mechanically adjust his growthforecasts on the basis of the new starting point. Nothing elseregarding the outlook will be ceded at this stage. While themonth-of-March partial data was itself underwhelming, implyinga modest jumping off point for the June quarter, the factremains that the NBS must at some point reinstate a plausiblecontribution from GCF, which would manifest itself in an extra1ppt of GDP growth. That would mean a spike in the growthrate - something that was eschewed in the March quarter, butmight possibly be countenanced from the newly impoverishedstarting point. A return to a negative net exports contribution,as seen in 2012, would help mitigate the headline effect.
Stats of the week: China has the world’s 9th largestmerchant marine fleet and the largest in the G20.Panama is #1 globally & South Korea is #2 in the G20.
Chinese GDP: real & nominal estimates
Deflator %yrReal %yrNominal %yrReal %saar official
Sources: CEIC, Westpac Economics.
Real investment growth and its GDP contribution
GCF cont. to real GDP growth (lhs)Ratio to partial data* (rhs)
Sources: CEIC, Westpac.*Ratioof growthrates of, respectively,real urbanfixedinvestmentandimpliedreal gross capital formation.