ELLA AREA: GOVERNANCE|ELLA THEME: PROMOTING HUMAN RIGHTS
Guatemala (1966-1996)El Salvador (1979-1992)Nicaragua (1979-1990)
DICTATORSHIPS AND MILITARY REGIMES
Brazil (1964-1985)Bolivia (1964-1982)Peru (1968-1980)Chile (1973-1990)Paraguay (1954-1989)Uruguay (1973-1985)Argentina (1976-1983)DIRTY WAR:Mexico (1960s-1970s)
Between the period 1966-1986, 90,000 cases oorced disappearanceswere reported in Argentina,Bolivia, Chile, Guatemala,Mexico, Peru and Uruguay.
For more inormation, see the websiteo the International Coordinating Committee or National Human Rights Institutions (ICC).
See, or example: International Council on Human Rights Policy. 2005.
. International Council on Human Rights Policy, Versoix.
Source: Own elaboration.Source: Latin American Federation o Associations or Relatives o theDetained-Disappeared (FEDEFAM).
The situation aced by most countries in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Arica is not too dierent rom the Latin Americanone. These regions have reported the ongoing occurrence osevere human rights violations such as abuse by police orces,extrajudicial executions, torture, impunity, inadequate justicesystems, threats to reedom o speech and gender-basedviolence. In this light, South Asian and Sub-Saharan Aricanreaders could fnd it useul to learn about practices that LatinAmerican NHRIs have implemented to promote, deend,protect and enorce human rights.
LATIN AMERICA’S NHRI MODEL
By deinition, NHRIs are government bodies with aconstitutional or legislative mandate to protect and promotehuman rights. Though they are unded by the State andare part o the State apparatus, they operate and unctionindependently rom government. While their specifc mandatemay vary across countries, generally their role is to addressdiscrimination, promote and protect civil, political, economic,social and cultural rights, and address human rightsviolations. To ulfl their mandate NHRIs perorm unctionslike handling complaints, educating about human rights andmaking recommendations on legal reorms, among others.
At the international level, NHRIs originated mainly to perormunctions related to oversight o public management. It wasonly later on that the model would incorporate the deenceand promotion o human rights. This model, the mostwidely recognised one today, emerged in Sweden and wasinstitutionalized there in1809.
are the main source o regulatorystandards or today’s NHRIs and were adopted by theNHRIs during an international workshop held in Paris in1991. The signing marked the beginning o cooperationand standardisation amongst NHRIs worldwide. They weresubsequently ratifed by both the Human Rights Commissionand the General Assembly o the United Nations. The ParisPrinciples outline the essential and ideal characteristicswhich NHRIs should adopt rom the moment o their creationall the way through to when they are operational.
Latin American NHRIs are based mainly on the Spanish andSwedish model. However, they are also clearly related to theScandinavian model, in that they are independently controlledbodies which do not require parliament to appoint its seniorocials and that their actions are not binding.The clearest dierence between the Latin American modeland their European parallels is that the ormer sets outexplicit unctions that prioritise deending human rights;this is in addition to the non-jurisdictional oversight o
Figure 1: Latin American Political Context, 1960s tomid-1990s
Figure 2: Forced Disappearances in Latin America