CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER ANSWER KEY
ANSWERS FOR THE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS1.
The sociological perspective is an approach to understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context. (4)2.
Sociologists consider occupation, income, education, gender, age, and race asdimensions of social location.(4)3.
All three statements reflect ways in which the social sciences are like the naturalsciences. Both attempt to study and understand their subjects objectively; both attemptto undercover the relationships that create order in their respective worlds throughcontrolled observation; and both are divided into many specialized fields. (5-7)4.
Generalization is one of the goals of scientific inquiry. It involves going beyondindividual cases by making statements that apply to broader groups or situations. (7)5.
The Industrial Revolution, imperialism, and the development of the scientific methodall contributed to the development of sociology. The fourth influence was the politicalrevolutions in America and France — there was no political revolution in Britain at thattime. (8-9)6.
Positivism is the application of the scientific approach to the social world. (9)7.
Of the four statements, the one that
reflects Herbert Spencer’s views on charityis “The poor are the weakest members of society and if society intervenes to helpthem, it is interrupting the natural process of social evolution.” While manycontemporaries of Spencer’s were appalled by his views, the wealthy industrialists foundthem attractive. (10)8.
The proletariat is the large group of workers who are exploited by the small group of capitalists who own the means of production, according to Karl Marx. (11)9.
Durkheim believed that social factors, patterns of behavior that characterize a socialgroup, explain many types of behavior, including suicide rates. (12)10.
In his research on suicide rates, Durkheim found that individuals’ integration intotheir social groups influences the overall patterns of suicide between groups. He calledthis concept
In response to the development of the new, impersonal industrial society, Durkheimsuggested that new social groups be created to stand between the state and the family.He believed this would address the condition of anomie. (12)12.
Max Weber's research on the rise of capitalism identified religious beliefs as the key.(13)13.
All are correct. Replication helps researchers overcome distortions that values cancause, results can be compared when a study is repeated, and replication involves therepetition of a study by other researchers. (14)14.
Social facts and
go hand-in-hand. Social facts are patterns of behavior thatcharacterize a social group. By applying
, your understanding of what it meansto be human and to face various situations in life, you gain an understanding of people's behavior. (15)15.
In the nineteenth century, it was unlikely that women would study sociology becausegender roles were rigidly defined; women were supposed to devote themselves to the four K's —
Kirche, Küchen, Kinder, und Kleider
(church, cooking, children, and clothes).(16-17)16.
The statement that, “Unlike the situation in Europe, many North American womenfound that there were few barriers and they were able to train in sociology and receivefaculty appointments,” is
. In the early years of sociology, the situation of women in North America was similar to that of European women — they were largely