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RF Robot

RF Robot



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Published by swapnil_surana

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Published by: swapnil_surana on Mar 25, 2009
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JUNE 2006
obotics is a fascinating sub- ject—more so, if you have tofabricate a robot yourself. Thefield of robotics encompasses a num- ber of engineering disciplines such aselectronics (including electrical), struc-tural, pneumatics and mechanical.The structural part involves use offrames, beams, linkages, axles, etc. Themechanical parts/accessories comprisevarious types of gears (spurs, crowns, bevels, worms and differential gearsystems), pulleys and belts, drive sys-tems (differentials, castors, wheels andsteering), etc. Pneumatics plays a vitalrole in generating specific pushing andpulling movements such as thosesimulating arms or leg movements.Pneumatic grippers are also used withadvantage in robotics because of theirsimplicity and cost-effectiveness. Theelectrical items include DC and step-per motors, actuators, electrical grips,clutches and their control. The elec-tronics part involves remote control,sensors (touch sensor, light sensor, col-lision sensor, etc), their interface cir-cuitry and a microcontroller for over-all control function.
Project overview 
What we present here is an elemen-tary robotic land rover that can be con-trolled remotely using primarily the RFmode. The RF remote control has theadvantage of adequate range (up to200 metres with proper antennae) be-sides being omnidirectional. On theother hand, an IR remote would func-tion over a limited range of about 5metres and the remote transmitter hasto be oriented towards the receivermodule quite precisely. However, the
cost involved in using RF modules ismuch higher than of IR componentsand as such, we have included the re-placement alternative of RF moduleswith their IR counterparts for usingthe IR remote control.The proposed land rover can movein forward and reverse directions. Youwould also be able to steer it towardsleft and right directions. While beingturned to left or right, the correspond-ing blinking LEDs would blink to in-dicate the direction of its turning. Simi-larly, during reverse movement, re-versing LEDs would be lit. Front andrear bumpers are provided using longoperating lever of micro switches toswitch off the drive motors during anycollision.The decoder being used for theproject has latched outputs and as suchyou do not have to keep the buttonson remote control pressed for morethan a few milliseconds. This helpsprolong the battery life for remote.A photograph of the working pro-totype of the land rover including re-mote is shown in Fig. 1.The entire project is split into sec-tions and each section is explained insufficient detail to enable you not onlyto fabricate the present design but alsoexploit these principles for evolvingyour own design with added func-tions/features.
 Forward and reverse movement 
Tokeep our design as simple as possible,we have coupled a 30-rpm geared 6VDC motor to the left front wheel andanother identical motor to the rightfront wheel. Both these front motorsare mounted side-by-side facing in op-posite directions. Wheel rims (5cm di-ameter) along with rubber wheels aredirectly coupled to each of the motorshafts. This arrangement does not re-
Fig.1: Prototype of the working land rover model including remote 
JUNE 2006
wheel needs to rotatedifferentially with re-spect to its counter-part. When the car ismoving in a straightline, the differentialgears do not rotatewith respect to theiraxes. However, whenthe car negotiates aturn, the differential al-lows the two wheels torotate differentially with respect toeach other.3. All the four wheels are used fordriving as well as steering. Examplesare Kyosho (USA) 4-wheel drive/4-wheel steering electric powered mon-ster truck chassis.4. Single front wheel is used fordriving as well as steering; e.g., in atricycle.5. Two driving wheels that are in-dependently controlled to turn; e.g., ina tank.In our project, to keep the thingssimple, we have used Method-5 withsome modification. For the rear wheels,we have made use of a single 5cm dia.plastic castor wheel, identical to theones used in revolving chairs. Such awheel turns by 180° when you try toreverse the direction of the vehicle’smotion. This way the movement of therover becomes stable in both the for-ward and reverse directions. The steer-quire separate axles.During forward (or reverse) move-ment of the vehicle, the two wheelshafts, as viewed from the motor ends,would move in opposite directions(one clockwise and the otheranticlockwise). For reversing the direc-tion (forward and backward), you sim-ply have to reverse the DC supply po-larity of the two motors driving therespective wheels.
Steering control
There are differ-ent methods available for steering arobotic vehicle. The commonly usedones are:1. Front wheels are used for steer-ing, while rear wheels are used fordriving; e.g., in tractors.2. Front wheels are used for steer-ing as well as driving; e.g., in mostlight vehicles. In these vehicles (suchas cars), the front wheels are coupledusing a differential gear arrangement.It comes into play only when oneing (clockwise or anticlockwise) mo-tion is achieved by driving only onewheel at a time. To turn the vehicletowards left (as perceived by thedriver) we energise only the right-hand-side motor, and to turn it to-wards right we energise only the left-hand-side motor during turning.
Drive circuit for the motors.
Hereis a typical circuit for driving one ofthe motors, in forward or reverse di-rection, coupled to, say, the left-handfront wheel. Simultaneously, the right-hand motor has to rotate in the reversedirection (w.r.t the left-hand motor) formoving the vehicle in the same direc-tion. It means that input terminals ofthe motor drive circuit for the right-hand motor have to be fed with re-verse-polarity control signals com-pared to those of the left-hand motordrive circuit.In the H-bridge motor drive circuit(see Fig. 2) when A1 input is madehigh and A2 is made low, transistorT1 (npn) is forward biased and driveninto saturation, while transistor T2(pnp), being reverse-biased, is cut-off.This extends the battery’s positive railto terminal-1 of the motor. Simulta-neously, with input A2 at ground po-tential, transistor T3 (npn) is cut-off,while T4 (pnp) is forward biased anddriven into saturation. This results inground being extended to terminal-2of the motor. Thus the motor rotatesin one direction.Now, if the two inputs are logi-cally complemented, the motor willrun in the opposite direction. When both the inputs are at the same logiclevel (Gnd or Vcc), the motor is at rest.Thus we can control the movement(forward, reverse and stop) as well asthe direction of rotation of the motorwith the help of logic level of the twocontrol input signals to the motor.
 Motor control logic.
As per the pre-ceding explanation, the input logic lev-els required at terminals A1 and A2 ofthe left-hand motor drive circuit andat input terminals B1 of B2 of the right-hand motor drive circuit are shown inTable I.Table I can be re-arranged as TableII, which can be further simplified asTable III. The equivalent hex values of
Fig. 2: H-bridge motor drive circuit Fig. 3: Test circuit 
JUNE 2006
the binary control signals are indicatedin Table III. It transpires that if we con-nect (short) input terminals A2 and B1of the two motor control circuits to-gether, we can control both the mo-tors for forward, reverse, left and rightmovement of the vehicle using the 3- bit binary number shown in Table III.This fact will be used while arrivingat the integrated circuit for controllingthe motors for appropriate movementof the land rover.
Remote control.
For remote control,we have used Holtek encoder-decoderpair of HT12E and HT12D employingRF as well as IR principles. Both ofthese are 18-pin DIP ICs. Their pin con-figurations are shown in the test cir-cuit of Fig. 3.
Operation of Holtek HT12E and HT12D.
HT12E and HT12D are CMOSICs with working voltage ranging from2.4V to 12V. Encoder HT12E has eightaddress and another four address/datalines. The data set on these twelve lines(address and address/data lines) is se-rially transmitted when the transmit-enable pin TE is taken low. The dataoutput appears serially on the D
pin. The data is transmitted four timesin succession. It consists of differing-length of positive-going pulses for ‘1’and ‘0,’ the pulse-width for ‘0’ beingtwice the pulse-width for ‘1.’ The fre-quency of these pulses may lie between1.5 and 7 kHz depending on the resis-tor value between OSC1 and OSC2pins. The internal oscillator frequencyof decoder HT12D is 50 times the os-cillator frequency of encoder HT12E.The values of timing resistors con-nected between OSC1 and OSC2 pinsof HT12E and HT12D, for given sup-ply voltages, can be found out fromthe graphs given in the datasheet ofthe respective chips (included in thismonth’s EFY-CD). The resistor valuesused in the circuits here are chosen forapproximately 3kHz frequency for theencoder (HT12E) and 150 kHz for de-coder HT12D at V
of 5V.The HT12D receives the data fromthe HT12E on its D
pin serially. Ifthe address part of the data receivedmatches the levels on A0 through A7pins four times in succession, the validtransmission (VT) pin is taken high.The data on pins AD8 through AD11of the HT12E appears on pins D8through D11 of the HT12D. Thus thedevice acts a receiver of 4-bit data (16possible codes) with 8-bit addressing(256 possible channels).The test circuit given in Fig. 3 willhelp you in checking the functionalserviceability and synchronisation ofthe frequency of operation. Once thefrequency of the pair is aligned, onpressing of push switch S1 on the en-coder, LED on the decoder shouldglow. You can also check the transferof data on pins AD8 through AD11(the data pins of the encoder can beset as high or low using switches S2through S5), which is latched on pinsD8 through D11 of the decoder onceTE pin is taken low momentarily us-ing push switch S1. This completes thetesting of encoder decoder pair ofHT12E and HT12D.
RF transmitter and RF receiver.
The RF transmitter and receiver mod-ules marketted by Aplus India,Mumbai have been employed for RFremote control. The RF transmitterTX-433 is an AM/ASK transmitter. Itsfeatures include:1. 5V-12V single supply operation2. On-off-keying (OOK)/amplitudeshift keying (ASK) data format3. Up to 9.6kbps data rate4. +9dBm output power (about200m range)5. SAW-based architecture6. For antenna, a 45cm wire is ad-equate.The output power and currentdrain of the RF transmitter for Vcc of5V and 12V are tabulated in Table IV.(
For details of OOK, refer box).The pin configuration of the trans-mitter module is shown in Fig. 4. TheRF receiver RX-433 is a 433MHz mod-ule. Its pin configuration is shown inFig. 5 and technical specifications aregiven in Table V.
Remote transmitter.
A completeschematic of the remote control trans-mitter-encoder circuit is shown in Fig.
Control Logic
TerminalsMotion A1 A2 B1 B2
Forward 1 0 0 1Reverse 0 1 1 0Left 0 0 0 1Right 1 0 0 0Stop 0 0 0 0
Control Logic
TerminalsMotion A2 B1 B2 A1
Forward 0 0 1 1Reverse 1 1 0 0Left 0 0 1 0Right 0 0 0 1Stop 0 0 0 0
Control Logic
TerminalsMotion A2/B1 B2 A1 Hex
Forward 0 1 1 3Reverse 1 0 0 4Left 0 1 0 2Right 0 0 0 1Stop 0 0 0 0
OOK transmitters
OOK is the modulation method of choicefor remote control applications wherepower consumption and cost are theprimary factors. Because OOK transmitters draw no power when they transmit a ‘0,’ these exhibit significantlylower power consumption than FSK transmitters.OOK modulation is a binary form ofamplitude modulation. When logic ‘0’(low data line) is being sent, the transmitter is ‘off,’ fully suppressing thecarrier. In this state, the transmitter current is very low (less than 1 mA).When logic ‘1’ is being sent, the carrier is fully ‘on.’ In this state, the currentconsumption of the module is at itshighest—about 4.5 mA with a 3V power supply.
Technical Specificationsof TX-433
O/P Current
5V DC 0 dBm 1.0 mA12V DC + 9 dBm 3 mA

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