ELECTRONICS FOR YOU •
the binary control signals are indicatedin Table III. It transpires that if we con-nect (short) input terminals A2 and B1of the two motor control circuits to-gether, we can control both the mo-tors for forward, reverse, left and rightmovement of the vehicle using the 3- bit binary number shown in Table III.This fact will be used while arrivingat the integrated circuit for controllingthe motors for appropriate movementof the land rover.
For remote control,we have used Holtek encoder-decoderpair of HT12E and HT12D employingRF as well as IR principles. Both ofthese are 18-pin DIP ICs. Their pin con-figurations are shown in the test cir-cuit of Fig. 3.
Operation of Holtek HT12E and HT12D.
HT12E and HT12D are CMOSICs with working voltage ranging from2.4V to 12V. Encoder HT12E has eightaddress and another four address/datalines. The data set on these twelve lines(address and address/data lines) is se-rially transmitted when the transmit-enable pin TE is taken low. The dataoutput appears serially on the D
pin. The data is transmitted four timesin succession. It consists of differing-length of positive-going pulses for ‘1’and ‘0,’ the pulse-width for ‘0’ beingtwice the pulse-width for ‘1.’ The fre-quency of these pulses may lie between1.5 and 7 kHz depending on the resis-tor value between OSC1 and OSC2pins. The internal oscillator frequencyof decoder HT12D is 50 times the os-cillator frequency of encoder HT12E.The values of timing resistors con-nected between OSC1 and OSC2 pinsof HT12E and HT12D, for given sup-ply voltages, can be found out fromthe graphs given in the datasheet ofthe respective chips (included in thismonth’s EFY-CD). The resistor valuesused in the circuits here are chosen forapproximately 3kHz frequency for theencoder (HT12E) and 150 kHz for de-coder HT12D at V
of 5V.The HT12D receives the data fromthe HT12E on its D
pin serially. Ifthe address part of the data receivedmatches the levels on A0 through A7pins four times in succession, the validtransmission (VT) pin is taken high.The data on pins AD8 through AD11of the HT12E appears on pins D8through D11 of the HT12D. Thus thedevice acts a receiver of 4-bit data (16possible codes) with 8-bit addressing(256 possible channels).The test circuit given in Fig. 3 willhelp you in checking the functionalserviceability and synchronisation ofthe frequency of operation. Once thefrequency of the pair is aligned, onpressing of push switch S1 on the en-coder, LED on the decoder shouldglow. You can also check the transferof data on pins AD8 through AD11(the data pins of the encoder can beset as high or low using switches S2through S5), which is latched on pinsD8 through D11 of the decoder onceTE pin is taken low momentarily us-ing push switch S1. This completes thetesting of encoder decoder pair ofHT12E and HT12D.
RF transmitter and RF receiver.
The RF transmitter and receiver mod-ules marketted by Aplus India,Mumbai have been employed for RFremote control. The RF transmitterTX-433 is an AM/ASK transmitter. Itsfeatures include:1. 5V-12V single supply operation2. On-off-keying (OOK)/amplitudeshift keying (ASK) data format3. Up to 9.6kbps data rate4. +9dBm output power (about200m range)5. SAW-based architecture6. For antenna, a 45cm wire is ad-equate.The output power and currentdrain of the RF transmitter for Vcc of5V and 12V are tabulated in Table IV.(
For details of OOK, refer box).The pin configuration of the trans-mitter module is shown in Fig. 4. TheRF receiver RX-433 is a 433MHz mod-ule. Its pin configuration is shown inFig. 5 and technical specifications aregiven in Table V.
A completeschematic of the remote control trans-mitter-encoder circuit is shown in Fig.
TerminalsMotion A1 A2 B1 B2
Forward 1 0 0 1Reverse 0 1 1 0Left 0 0 0 1Right 1 0 0 0Stop 0 0 0 0
TerminalsMotion A2 B1 B2 A1
Forward 0 0 1 1Reverse 1 1 0 0Left 0 0 1 0Right 0 0 0 1Stop 0 0 0 0
TerminalsMotion A2/B1 B2 A1 Hex
Forward 0 1 1 3Reverse 1 0 0 4Left 0 1 0 2Right 0 0 0 1Stop 0 0 0 0
OOK is the modulation method of choicefor remote control applications wherepower consumption and cost are theprimary factors. Because OOK transmitters draw no power when they transmit a ‘0,’ these exhibit significantlylower power consumption than FSK transmitters.OOK modulation is a binary form ofamplitude modulation. When logic ‘0’(low data line) is being sent, the transmitter is ‘off,’ fully suppressing thecarrier. In this state, the transmitter current is very low (less than 1 mA).When logic ‘1’ is being sent, the carrier is fully ‘on.’ In this state, the currentconsumption of the module is at itshighest—about 4.5 mA with a 3V power supply.
Technical Specificationsof TX-433
5V DC – 0 dBm 1.0 mA12V DC + 9 dBm 3 mA