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3D stimulation electricitymannetical and thermal property

3D stimulation electricitymannetical and thermal property

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Published by: aleko on Mar 25, 2009
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3D Modeling and Simulation of the Electromagnetic and ThermalProperties of Microwave and Millimeter Wave Electronics Packages
Jian Ding, David LintonThe Institute of Electronics, Communications and Information Technology (ECIT), Queen’s UniversityBelfast, Northern Ireland Science Park, Queen’s Road, Queen’s Island, Belfast, Northern Ireland, BT39DT, UK 
Email: j.ding@ecit.qub.ac.uk 
The COMSOL Multiphysics™ package has been used in this work to model andsimulate the electromagnetic and thermal properties of GaAs pHEMT based MonolithicMicrowave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) and amulti-chip millimeter wave package including aLow Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC)antenna array. Embedded shielding ground planes inside the ceramic and silicon carriershave been studied. The temperature increase of each component due to the self heating of the power devices in the packages was simulatedcoupled with the static electromagnetic analysis.Simulation results of the MMIC structures werecompared with the results from an analysismethod based electro-thermal simulator fREEDA™. The need for thermal vias wasdemonstrated as essential parts of the packagefor thermal cooling purposes.
Monolithic Microwave IntegratedCircuits (MMIC), System-in-Package (SiP), LowTemperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC), thermalmodel, thermal vias, temperature 
1. Introduction
Increasing miniaturization in microwave andmillimeter wave circuits is being driven by therequirement for portability and low power consumption. With the closer integration of active and passive components in packages it isnow increasingly difficult to dissipate thethermal power generated from the power devices[1]. This results in an increase in average activedevice temperature pushing junctiontemperatures to dangerous levels. This willadversely affect the electrical performance of devices leading to failure.Due to the miniaturized package, highdensity of the power devices and microwave or millimeter wave operation frequency,electromagnetic shielding inside the package is becoming more and more important and worth being investigated for the physical layoutsolidity.Therefore, predictive design, based onaccurate thermal and electromagnetic models andsimulations, is quite necessary before theelectronic circuits being manufactured.COMSOL Multiphysics™ is an efficient package that implements this simulationapproach in microwave and millimeter wavecircuits in which both thermal andelectromagnetic co-analysis are supported [2].A GaAs pHEMT based MMIC amplifier  package was modeled and simulated inCOMSOL Multiphysics™ to obtain thetemperature profile. Electro-thermal simulationsof the amplifier were also performed using aspice-like circuit simulator fREEDA™ [3].A 65GHz RF transmitter module, which isthe foundation of wireless communicationsystems, has been designed by applyingmultilayer SiP technology. A family of QUBOMMIC MMICs in GaAs pHEMT D01PHtechnology was used to supply 65GHz signals toan antenna array [4]. Low Temperature Co-firedCeramic (LTCC), which is a popular manufacturing technology for millimeter waveapplications, was used to build a compact 65GHz2×2 microstrip phased array antenna. The MMICdie and LTCC antenna module are positioned incavities within a silicon substrate.Electromagnetic shielding and thermal issues of the whole module were analyzed usingCOMSOL Multiphysics™. Metallic griddedground planes and thermal cooling has beenimproved based on the simulation results.
2. GaAs MMIC Amplifier and System-in-Package Transmitter Module
2.1 GaAs MMIC Amplifier
Electro-thermal simulations were carried outfor a GaAs MMIC amplifier using fREEDA™ package. Temperature increase at the junction of the power device and the electrical performance
Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Users Conference 2006 Birmingham
influenced by the thermal effect were obtained.Figure 1 shows the schematic of the amplifier circuit in the package fREEDA™.Thermal model of the MMIC die was setupin COMSOL Multiphysics™ as a cubic withsingle central surface heating element as shownin Figure 2.
Figure 1
. Circuit schematic of the GaAs MMICamplifier simulated in fREEDA™ [5].
Figure 2
. GaAs MMIC die model in COMSOLMultiphysics™.
2.2 System-in-Package Transmitter Module
The multi-chip transmitter module wasdesigned in modular form, consisting of a32GHz oscillator, a 32GHz power amplifier, a32/64GHz doubler, an up-converter, three64GHz phase shifters, four 64-66GHz power amplifiers and four microstrip antennas. The block diagram of the designed transmitter module is shown in Figure 3.A GaAs chip set has already been developedat 65GHz using OMMIC GaAs pHEMT D01PHtechnology targeted at wireless LAN operation[4]. A 65GHz 2×2 Microstrip phase arrayantenna was designed and fabricated using
Figure 3
Block diagram of the 65GHz transmitter module [6].
 multilayer LTCC technology [6]. Beam steeringcan be obtained by varying the phase of individual antenna elements using phase shifters.The side view of the LTCC structure is shown inFigure 4.
Figure 4
Side View of the LTCC antenna (size not inscale).
 Inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ionetching (ICP-RIE) is applied to make devicewells in the silicon substrate for all thecomponents. Well lateral dimension and welldepth are carefully controlled for the activeMMIC dies and antenna package. Summaries of all the MMIC dies, LTCC antenna and siliconsubstrate are shown in table 1. A top view of thewhole System-in-Package is shown in Figure 5.
3. COMSOL Multiphysics™ Models andSimulation Results
 The thermal model of the MMIC die andmulti-chip System-in-Package was setup andanalyzed using COMSOL Multiphysics™.
Antenna PatchesPartGr ially Griddedound Plan
esStripline feedCeramicCPWInterfaceAgPt Via Silver Via Probe
Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Users Conference 2006 Birmingham
Figure 6 shows the meshing of the cubic MMICdie model with a single central surface heatingelement. Figure 7 shows the temperaturedistribution of the MMIC die model with a 100KHz input signal shortly after switch on usingtransient analysis. Figure 8 shows thetemperature variation of the MMIC amplifier with a 1MHz input signal from transient analysisin both fREEDA™ and COMSOLMultiphysics™.
Table 1
Component summary of the System-in-Package.
Figure 5
Top View of the transmitter module.
 Thermal stress is induced in the System-in-Package transmitter module due to the highthermal gradient around devices with dissimilar TCE. Meshing of the whole package model thatwas setup using COMSOL Multiphysics™ isshown in Figure 9. Two main thermal equationsthat were solved in the 3D thermal analysis are:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
Const hqn
(2)Equation (1) was set up for sub-domainanalyses and Equation (2) was for boundaryanalyses. Detailed meaning of the parameters in both equations is shown in Table 2. Table 3 isthe summary of the thermal properties of different materials in the package.
Figure 6
Meshing of the cubic MMIC die model witha single central surface heating element.
Figure 7
Temperature distribution of a MMICamplifier thermal model 50 micro-seconds after switchon from transient simulation in COMSOLMultiphysics™.
Active devices (pHEMTs) were modeled as20
m × 20
m squares dissipating power on thecentral surface of each MMIC die. About 50,000meshes were generated using the meshing tool inCOMSOL Multiphysics™. Stationary nonlinear simulations were performed on the whole package with and without thermal vias.Figure 10 and Figure 11 shows thesimulation results of the package temperaturedistribution with and without thermal vias
Component NameSize ()
32GHz Oscillator QUBOSC5 3×2×0.132GHz Power Amplifier QUBAMP2 3×1×0.132/64GHz Doubler QUBDOUB 2×1.5×0.1Mixer QUBMIX4 2×1.5×0.164GHz Phase Shifter QUBPS1 1.5×1×0.164GHz Power Amplifier QUBCIRC1 3×2×0.1LTCC Antenna Array ------ 18×18×1.2Silicon Substrate ------ 34×30×1
Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Users Conference 2006 Birmingham

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