3D Modeling and Simulation of the Electromagnetic and ThermalProperties of Microwave and Millimeter Wave Electronics Packages
Jian Ding, David LintonThe Institute of Electronics, Communications and Information Technology (ECIT), Queen’s UniversityBelfast, Northern Ireland Science Park, Queen’s Road, Queen’s Island, Belfast, Northern Ireland, BT39DT, UK
The COMSOL Multiphysics™ package has been used in this work to model andsimulate the electromagnetic and thermal properties of GaAs pHEMT based MonolithicMicrowave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) and amulti-chip millimeter wave package including aLow Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC)antenna array. Embedded shielding ground planes inside the ceramic and silicon carriershave been studied. The temperature increase of each component due to the self heating of the power devices in the packages was simulatedcoupled with the static electromagnetic analysis.Simulation results of the MMIC structures werecompared with the results from an analysismethod based electro-thermal simulator fREEDA™. The need for thermal vias wasdemonstrated as essential parts of the packagefor thermal cooling purposes.
Monolithic Microwave IntegratedCircuits (MMIC), System-in-Package (SiP), LowTemperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC), thermalmodel, thermal vias, temperature
Increasing miniaturization in microwave andmillimeter wave circuits is being driven by therequirement for portability and low power consumption. With the closer integration of active and passive components in packages it isnow increasingly difficult to dissipate thethermal power generated from the power devices. This results in an increase in average activedevice temperature pushing junctiontemperatures to dangerous levels. This willadversely affect the electrical performance of devices leading to failure.Due to the miniaturized package, highdensity of the power devices and microwave or millimeter wave operation frequency,electromagnetic shielding inside the package is becoming more and more important and worth being investigated for the physical layoutsolidity.Therefore, predictive design, based onaccurate thermal and electromagnetic models andsimulations, is quite necessary before theelectronic circuits being manufactured.COMSOL Multiphysics™ is an efficient package that implements this simulationapproach in microwave and millimeter wavecircuits in which both thermal andelectromagnetic co-analysis are supported .A GaAs pHEMT based MMIC amplifier package was modeled and simulated inCOMSOL Multiphysics™ to obtain thetemperature profile. Electro-thermal simulationsof the amplifier were also performed using aspice-like circuit simulator fREEDA™ .A 65GHz RF transmitter module, which isthe foundation of wireless communicationsystems, has been designed by applyingmultilayer SiP technology. A family of QUBOMMIC MMICs in GaAs pHEMT D01PHtechnology was used to supply 65GHz signals toan antenna array . Low Temperature Co-firedCeramic (LTCC), which is a popular manufacturing technology for millimeter waveapplications, was used to build a compact 65GHz2×2 microstrip phased array antenna. The MMICdie and LTCC antenna module are positioned incavities within a silicon substrate.Electromagnetic shielding and thermal issues of the whole module were analyzed usingCOMSOL Multiphysics™. Metallic griddedground planes and thermal cooling has beenimproved based on the simulation results.
2. GaAs MMIC Amplifier and System-in-Package Transmitter Module
2.1 GaAs MMIC Amplifier
Electro-thermal simulations were carried outfor a GaAs MMIC amplifier using fREEDA™ package. Temperature increase at the junction of the power device and the electrical performance
Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Users Conference 2006 Birmingham