surveys in Britain and America, an averageof 51 per cent of dog owners and 30 per centof cat owners said they had noticed suchanticipatory behaviour.The dog I have investigated in most detail isa terrier called Jaytee, who belongs to PamSmart, in Ramsbottom, Greater Manchester.Pam adopted Jaytee from Manchester Dogs'Home in 1989 when he was still a puppy, andsoon formed a close bond with him.In 1991, when Pam was working as asecretary at a school in Manchester, she leftJaytee with her parents, who noticed that thedog went to the French window almost everyweekday at about 4.30 pm, around the timeshe set off, and waited there until she arrivedsome 45 minutes later. She worked routineoffice hours, so the family assumed thatJaytee's behaviour depended on some kind of time sense.Pam was made redundant in 1993 and wassubsequently unemployed, no longer tied toany regular pattern of activity. Her parentsdid not usually know when she would becoming home, but Jaytee still anticipated herreturn.In 1994 Pam read an article about myresearch and volunteered to take part. Inmore than 100 experiments, we videotapedthe area by the window where Jaytee waitedduring Pam's absences, providing acontinuous, time-coded record of hisbehaviour which was scored "blind" by athird party who did not know the details of the experiments. To check that Jaytee wasnot reacting to the sound of Pam's car orother familiar vehicles, we investigatedwhether he still anticipated her arrival whenshe travelled by unusual means: by bicycle,by train and by taxi. He did.We also carried out experiments in whichPam set off at times selected at random aftershe had left home, communicated to her bymeans of a telephone pager. In theseexperiments, Jaytee still started waiting at thewindow around the time Pam set off, eventhough no one at home knew when she wouldbe coming. The odds against this being achance effect were more than 100,000 to one.Jaytee behaved in a very similar way when hewas tested repeatedly by skeptics anxious todebunk his abilities.The evidence indicates that Jaytee wasreacting to Pam's intention to come homeeven when she was many miles away.Telepathy seems the only hypothesis that canaccount for the facts.Other kinds of animal telepathy can also beinvestigated experimentally, for example theapparent ability of dogs to know when theyare going to be taken for walks. In theseexperiments the dogs are kept in a separateroom or outbuilding and videotapedcontinuously. Meanwhile their owner, at arandomly selected time, thinks about takingthem for a walk and then five minutes laterdoes so. Our experiments have shown dogsexhibiting obvious excitement when theirowner is thinking about taking them out,although they could not have known this bynormal sensory means. They did not manifestsuch excitement at other times.There is much potential for further researchon animal telepathy. And if domestic animalsare telepathic with their human owners, thenit seems very likely that animals aretelepathic with each other, and that this mayplay an important part in the wild. Somenaturalists have already suggested that thecoordination of flocks of birds and herds of animals may involve something liketelepathy, as may communication betweenmembers of a pack of wolves.
The sense of direction
Homing pigeons can find their way back totheir loft over hundreds of miles of unfamiliarterrain. Migrating European swallows travelthousands of miles to rection and can maketheir way home from unfamiliar places manymiles away.Most research on animal navigation has beencarried out with homing pigeons, and this