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Gears - Engineering Information

Gears - Engineering Information

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Published by: Giang T Le on Apr 16, 2013
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Gears are some of the most important elements used inmachinery. There are few mechanical devices that do nothave the need to transmit power and motion betweenrotating shafts. Gears not only do this most satisfactorily, butcan do so with uniform motion and reliability. In addition,they span the entire range of applications from large tosmall. To summarize: offer positive transmission of power.Gears range in size from small miniature instrumentinstallations, that measure in only several millimeters indiameter, to huge powerful gears in turbine drives thatare several meters in diameter.Gears can provide position transmission with very highangular or linear accuracy; such as used inservomechanisms and military equipment.Gears can couple power and motion between shaftswhose axes are parallel. intersecting or skew.Gear designs are standardized in accordance with sizeand shape which provides for widespreadinterchangeability.This technical manual is written as an aid for the designerwho is a beginner or only superficially knowledgeable aboutgearing. It provides fundamental theoretical and practicalinformation. Admittedly, it is not Intended for experts.Those who wish to obtain further information and specialdetails should refer to the reference list at the end of thistext and other literature on mechanical machinery andcomponents.
This technical section is dedicated to details of metricgearing because of its increasing importance. Currently,much gearing in the united States is still based upon the inchsystem. However, with most of the world metricated, the useof metric gearing in the United States is definitely on theincrease, and inevitably at some future date it will be theexclusive system.It should be appreciated that in the United States there isa growing amount of metric gearing due to increasingmachinery and other equipment imports. This is particularlytrue of manufacturing equipment. such as printing presses,paper machines and machine tools. Automobiles are anothermajor example, and one that impacts tens of millions of individuals. Further spread of metric gearing is inevitablesince the world that surrounds the United States is rapidlyapproaching complete conformance. England and Canada,once bastions of the inch system, are well down the road of metrication, leaving the United States as the only significantexception.Thus, it becomes prudent for engineers and designers tonot only become familiar with metric gears, but also toincorporate them in their designs. Certainly, for exportproducts it is imperative; and for domestic products it is aserious consideration. The U.S. Government, and inparticular the military, is increasingly insisting upon metricbased equipment designs.Recognizing that most engineers and designers havebeen reared tan environment of heavy use of the inchsystem and that the amount of literature about metric gearsis limited, we are offering this technical gear section as anaid to understanding and use of metric gears. In thefollowing pages, metric gear standards are introduced alongwith information about interchangeability andnon-interchangeability. Although gear theory is the same forboth the inch and metric systems, the formulae hr metric
1.1 Comparison Of Metric Gears With American Inch Gears1.1.1 Comparison of Basic Racks
In all modern gear systems, the rack is the basis for toothdesign and manufacturing tooling. Thus, the similarities anddifferences between the two systems can be put into properperspective with comparison of the metric and inch basic racks.In both systems, the basic rack is normalized for a unit size.For the metric rack it is 1 module, and for the inch rack it is 1diametral pitch.
1.1.2 Metric ISO Basic Rack
The standard ISO metric rack is detailed in
Figure 1-1
. It isnow the accepted standard for the international community, ithaving eliminated a number of minor differences that existedbetween the earlier versions of Japanese. German and Russianmodules. For comparison, the standard inch rack is detailed in
Figure 1-2
. Note that there are many similarities. The principalfactors are the same for both racks. Both are normalized forunity; that is, the metric rack is specified in terms of 1 module,and the inch rack in terms of 1 diametral pitch.
Fig. 1-1 The Basic Metric Rack From ISO 53Normalized For Module 1
ha=Addendumh=Dedendumc=Clearancer=WorkingDepthh=Whole Depthp=CircularPitchr=Root Radiuss=Circular ToothThicknessa = Pressure Angle
Fig. 1-2 The Basic Inch Diametral Pitch RackNormalized For 1 Diametral Pitch
From the normalized metric rack, corresponding dimensionsfor any module are obtained by multiplying each rack dimensionby the value of the specific module m. The major toothparameters are defined by the standard, as:
Catalog Q410
gearing take on a different set of symbols. These equationsare fully defined in the metric system. The coverage isthorough and complete with the intention that this be asource for all information about gearing with definition in ametric format.
Tooth Form: Pressure Angle:
 Straight-sided full depth, forming thebasis of a family of full depthinterchangeable gears.A 20º pressure angle, which conformsto worldwide acceptance of this as themost versatile pressure angle. 329
Catalog Q410
Addendum: Dedendum: Root Radius:Tip Radius: 
This is equal to the module m, which issimilar to the inch value that becomes 1/p.This is 1.25 m; again similar to the inch rackvalue.The metric rack value is slightly greater thanthe American inch rack value.A maximum value is specified. This is adeviation from the American inch rack whichdoes not specify a rounding.
1.1.3 Comparison of Gear Calculation Equations
Most gear equations that are used for diametral pitch inchgears are equally applicable to metric gears if the module m issubstituted for diametral pitch. However, there are exceptionswhen it is necessary to use dedicated metric equations. Thus,to avoid confusion and errors, it is most effective to workentirely with and within the metric system.
1.2 Metric Standards Worldwide1.2.1 ISO Standards
Metric standards have been coordinated andstandardized by theInternational Standards Organization (ISO). A listing of themost pertinent standards is given in
Table 1-1
1.2.2 Foreign Metric Standards
Most major industrialized countries have been using metricgears for a long time and consequently had developed theirown standards prior to the establishment of ISO and SI units.In general, they are very similar to the ISO standards. The keyforeign metric standards are listed in Table 1-2 for reference.
1.3 Japanese Metric Standards In This Text
1.3.1 Application of JIS Standards
Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) define numerousengineering subjects including gearing. The originals aregenerated in Japanese, but they are translated and publishedin English by the Japanese Standards Association.Considering that many metric gears are produced in Japan,the JIS standards may apply. These essentially conform to allaspects of tin ISO standards.
Table 1-1 ISO Metric Gearing Standards
ISO 53:1974 Cylindrical gears for general and heavy engineering - Basic rackISO 54 1977Cylindrical gears for general and heavy engineering - Modules and diametralpitchesISO 677:1976 Straight bevel gears for general and heavy engineering - Basic rackISO 678:1976Straight bevel gears for general and heavy engineering - Modules anddiametral pitchesISO 701 :1976 International gear notation - symbols for geometrical dataISO 1122-1:1983 Glossary of gear terms - Part 1: Geometrical definitionsISO 1328:1975 Parallel involute gears - ISO system of accuracyISO 1340:1976Cylindrical gears Information to be given to the manufacturer by the purchaserin order to obtain the gear requiredISO 1341:1976Straight bevel gears - Information to be given to the manufacturer by thepurchaser in order to obtain the gear requiredISO 2203:1973 Technical drawings - Conventional representation of gearsISO 2490:1975single-start solid (monobloc) gear hobs with axial keyway, 1 to 20 module and1 to 20 diametral pitch - Nominal dimensionsISO/TR 4467:1982Addendum modification of the teeth of cylindrical gears for speed-reducing andspeed-increasing gear pairsH5O 4468:1982 Gear hobs - Single-start - Accuracy requirementsISO 8579-1:1993Acceptance code for gears - Part 1: Determination of airborne sound powerlevels emitted by gear unitsISO 8579-2:1993Acceptance code for gears - Part 2: Determination of mechanical vibrations of gear units during acceptance testingISO/TR10064-1:1992Cylindrical gears - Code of inspection practice - Part 1: Inspection of corresponding flanks of gear teeth
Table 1-2 Foreign Metric Gear StandardsAUSTRALIA
AS B 62AS B 66AS B 214AS B 217AS 1637 1965196919661966 Bevel gearsWorm gears (inch series)Geometrical dimensions for worm gears - UnitsGlossary for gearingInternational gear notation symbols for geometric data (similar to ISO 701)
Catalog Q410

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