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Sacred Geometry Golden Ratio Fibonacci Sequence and Pythagoreanism

Sacred Geometry Golden Ratio Fibonacci Sequence and Pythagoreanism

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Published by CXXXVII
Pythagorean philosopher, Plato, in his writings and oral teachings, hinted, though enigmatically, that there was a golden key unifying these mysteries.
Pythagorean philosopher, Plato, in his writings and oral teachings, hinted, though enigmatically, that there was a golden key unifying these mysteries.

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Published by: CXXXVII on Apr 17, 2013
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05/20/2013

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inTroducTion
Nature holds a great mystery, zealously guarded by her custodiansrom those who would proane or abuse the wisdom. Periodicallyportions o this tradition are quietly revealed to those o humanitywho have attuned their eyes to see and ears to hear. Theprimary requirements are openness, sensitivity, enthusiasm, and anearnestness to understand the deeper meaning o nature’s marvelsexhibited to us daily. Many o us tend to walk through lie hal asleep, at times numbed, i not actually deadened to the exquisiteorder that surrounds us. But a trail o clues has been preserved.The secretive tradition centers on a study o number, harmony,geometry and cosmology that stretches back through the mists o time into the Egyptian, Babylonian, Indian and Chinese cultures.It is evident in the layout and relationships o the stone circles andunderground chambers o ancient Europe, as well as in Neolithicstones discovered in Britain, ashioned in the orm o the ive regular solids. There are urther clues in Maya and other Mesoamericanartiacts and buildings, and across the ocean the Gothic masonsembedded it in their cathedral designs.The great Pythagorean philosopher, Plato, in his writings andoral teachings, hinted, though enigmatically, that there was a goldenkey uniying these mysteries.Here is my promise to you: i you are willing to proceed step bystep through this compact little book, it will be well nigh impossiblenot to grasp by the end a satisying and stunning glimpse, i notdeeply provocative insight, into Nature’s Greatest Secret.
   P  e  r  s  p  e  c  t   i  v  a   C  o  r  p  o  r  u  m   R  e  g  u   l  a  r   i  u  m
 ,   J  a  m  n   i  t  z  e  r ,   1   5   6   8
 
T
he
M
 ysTery 
 
of
P
hi
the golden thread of perennial wisdom
The history o the golden section is diicult to unravel. Despiteits use in ancient Egypt and the Pythagorean tradition, the irstdeinition we have comes rom Euclid
[325-265 BCE]
, who deinesit as the division o a line in extreme and mean ratio. The earliestknown treatise on the subject is
Divina Proportione 
by Luca Pacioli
[1445-1517]
, the monk drunk on beauty, and illustrated by LeonardoDa Vinci, who according to tradition coined the term
sectio aurea
,or “golden section.However, the irst published use o the phraseoccurs in Martin Ohm’s
1
835
Pure Elementary Mathematics
.There are many names or this mysterious section. It is variouslycalled a golden or divine ratio, mean, proportion, number, section or cut. In mathematical notation it goes by the symbol
t
,
tau
,” meaning“the cut,” or more commonly
@
or 
f
,
 phi 
,” the irst letter o thename o the Greek sculptor Phidias, who used it in the Parthenon.So what is this enigmatic cut, and why is there so muchascination about it? One o the eternal questions asked byphilosophers concerns how the One becomes Many. What is thenature o separation, or division? Is there a way in which parts canretain a meaningul relationship to the whole?Posing this question in allegorical terms, Plato
[427-347 BCE]
in
The Republic 
asks the reader to
“take a line and divide it unevenly.Under a Pythagorean oath o silence not to reveal the secretso the mysteries, Plato posed questions in hopes o provokingan insightul response. So why does he use a line, rather thannumbers? And why does he ask us to divide it unevenly?
To answer Plato, we irst must understand ratio and proportion.
   T  a   b   l  e  t  o   f   S   h  a  m  a  s   h
 ,  e  a  r   l  y   9  t   h   C   B   C ,   S   i  p  p  a  r ,   S   I  r  a  q
 
 aTio
, M
eans
 
P
roPorTion
continuous geometric proportion
Ratio (
logos
) is the relation o one number to another, or instance 4:8 (“4 is to 8”). However, proportion (
analogia
) is arepeating ratio that typically involves our terms, so 4:8 :: 5:
1
0(“4 is to 8 is as 5 is to
1
0”). The Pythagoreans called this a our-termed discontinuous proportion. The invariant ratio here is
1
:2, repeated in both 4:8 and 5:
1
0.
An inverted ratio reverses theterms, so 8:4 is the inverse o 4:8, the invariant ratio now 2:
1
.
 
Standing between the two-termed ratio and the our-termedproportion is the three-termed mean in which the middle termis in the same ratio to the irst as the last is to it. The geometricmean between two numbers is equal to the square root o their product. Thus, the geometric mean o, say,
1
and 9 is
√ 
(
1
x9) = 3.This geometric mean relationship is written as
1
:3:9, or, inverted,as 9:3:
1
. It can also be written more ully as a continuousgeometric proportion where these two ratios repeat the sameinvariant ratio o 
1
:3. Thus,
1
:3 :: 3:9. The 3 is the geometricmean held in common by both ratios, binding, or interlacingthem together in what the Pythagoreans called a three-termedcontinuous geometric proportion.Plato holds continuous geometric proportion to be the mostproound cosmic bond. In his
Timaeus
the world soul bindstogether, into one harmonic resonance, the intelligible worldo orms (including pure mathematics) above, and the visibleworld o material objects below, through the
1
, 2, 4, 8 and
1
, 3,9, 27 series. This results in the extended continuous geometricproportions,
1
:2 :: 2:4 :: 4:8, and
1
:3 :: 3:9 :: 9:27 (
see opposite 
).
Ratio: between two numbers
a
and 
b
 Ratio between
a
and 
b a
:
b o a/b
Inverse ratio
b
:
a o b/a
 
Means:
b
 , between
a
and 
Arithmetic Mean
b
of 
a
and 
b
=Harmonic Mean
b
of 
a
and 
b
=
 
Geometric Mean
b
of 
a
and 
b
=
a
 
Proportion: between two ratios
Discontinuous (4 termed) Continuous (3 termed) 
a
:
b
::
:
 
a
:
b
::
b
:
 => a
:
b
:
e.g., 4 : 8 :: 5 : 10 note
b
is the geometrichas invariant ratio 1 : 2 mean of 
a
and 
 
Plato's World Soul:
Extended continuous geometric proportion1 : 2 :: 2 : 4 :: 4 : 8 1 : 3 :: 3 : 9 :: 9 : 27invar. ratio 1 : 2 invar. ratio 1 : 3
 
or 1/2 or 1/3
Lamba iagama
+
2
2aa + 
 
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