National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli
Department of Chemical Engineering
Answer Key to CPC Test Paper on Thermodynamics
Date: 08/03/2011 Duration: 45 min Max. Marks: 25
Differentiate between the following: (2)
System and control volume
System refers to the part of the universe or a fixed region of space of fixed mass that is under consideration. Control volume on the other hand refers to a volume through which there is flow of mass (and energy) across a control surface.
Fugacity coefficient and Activity coefficient
Fugacity coefficient is the ratio between fugacity and pressure of a gas (
= f/P). Activity coefficient is the ratio of actual fugacity of a solution to the fugacity of an ideal solution at the sametemperature and pressure (a=f/f
) where x is mole fraction.
What is meant by thermodynamic equilibrium? Give the conditions. (2)
Thermodynamic equilibrium refers to the condition when there is no change of the macroscopicvariables or properties of the system such as temperature, pressure, volume, etc.The conditions are (i) Mechanical Equilibrium (ii) Thermal Equilibrium and (iii) Chemical Equilibrium.
What is Kelvin Planck’s statement about PMM1?
PMM1 is Perpetual Motion Machine of First Kind and Kelvin Planck’s statement of 2nd law of
Thermodynamics states that such a machine cannot exist because a machine working on athermodynamic cycle having no other effect other than work transfer while exchanging heat with asingle thermal reservoir is impossible. In other words, a machine has to reject heat to a low temperature reservoir and that all heat energy cannot be converted into work.
Briefly write something about Clausius statement of 2
law of Thermodynamics. (1)
Clausius statement of 2nd law of Thermodynamics states that a machine working on athermodynamic cycle cannot spontaneously transfer heat from a low temperature body to a hightemperature body. Work has to be done for the transfer. It is the principle behind refrigerator and heat pump.
Fugacity has dimensions similar to
. The residual Gibbs energy for a fluidat ideal gas state is equal to