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Review of Concepts and Intrapartal Handout Mcn

Review of Concepts and Intrapartal Handout Mcn

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Published by Ciella Dela Cruz

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Published by: Ciella Dela Cruz on Mar 26, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/30/2012

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MATERNAL AND CHILD NURSING
Prepared by:Ma. Reina Rose D. Gulmatico, RN, MSN
I. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
A. External Reproductive OrgansMons Pubis (Mons Veneris) – (Mount of Venus) is a pad of fat lying over the symphysis pubis;covered with pubic hair from the time of pubertyLabia Majora (Greater lips) – are two folds of fat and areolar tissue, covered with skin and pubic hair on the outer surface; arise in the mons veneris and merge into the perineum behind.Labia Minora (Lesser lips) - two folds of the skin between the labia majora; anteriorly, they divide toenclose the clitoris; posteriorly they fuse, forming the
fourchette
Clitoris - rudimentary organ corresponding to the male penis; extremely sensitive and highly vascular and plays a part in the orgasm of sexual intercourseVestibule - area enclosed by the labia minora in which encloses the openings of the urethra and thevaginaVaginal orifice- also known as the introitus of the vagina and occupies the posterior two-thirds of thevestibule; partially closed by the hymen, a thin membrane that tears during sexual intercourse or during birth of the first childSkene’s Glands- either side of the meatus which are often involved in infections of external genitaliaBartholins Glands - are two small glands which open on either side of the vaginal orifice and lie on theposterior part of the labia majora. They secrete mucus which lubricates the vaginal opening.
B. Internal Reproductive Organs
THE VAGINAStructure:vaginal walls are pink in appearance and thrown into small folds called the
rugae
that stretches duringintercourse and delivery.Functions:a passage that allows the escape of the menstrual flowreceives the penis and the ejected sperm during sexual intercourse and provides an exit for the fetusduring delivery
 
THE UTERUSStructurehollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ situated in the true pelvisthe cervix forms the lower third of the uterusFunctionsto shelter the fetus during pregnancy and following pregnancy it expels the uterinecontents Parts of the UterusBody or corpus – makes up the upper two-thirds of the uterus and is the greater partFundus domed upper wall between the insertions of the uterine tubesCornua are the upper outer angles of the uterus where the uterine tubes joinCavity potential space between the anterior and posterior wallsIsthmus – narrow area between the cavity and the cervix that enlarges during pregnancy to form thelower uterine segmentCervix or Neck protrudes into the vagina; supravaginal (upper half)- above the vaginainfravaginal portion (lower half)Layers of the UterusEndometrium - forms a lining of ciliated ephitelium (mucus membrane) on a base of connectivetissue (stroma) Myometrium (muscle coat)- thick in the upper part of the uterus and is more sparse in the isthmusan cervix.PerimetriumD. UTERINE TUBESFunctions
The uterine tubes propels the ovum towards the uterus, receives thespermatozoa as they travel upwards and provides a site for fertilization. Itsupplies the fertilized ovum with the nutrition during its continued journey to theuterus.Structure
Each tube is 10 cm long. The lumen of the tube provides an open pathway fromthe outside to the peritoneal cavity. The uterine tube has four portions:
 
a)The interstitial portion – is 1.25 cm long and lies within the wall of the uterus. It’s lumenis 1 mm wide.b)The isthmus – is another narrow part which extends from 2.5 cm from the uterus.c)The ampulla – is the wider portion where fertilization usually occurs.d)The infundibulum is the funnel shaped fringed end which is composed of manyprocesses known as fimbriae. One fimbriae is elongated to form the ovarian fimbriawhich is attached to the ovary.E. THE OVARIESFunctions
The ovaries produce ova and the hormones estrogen and progesterone.Structure
The ovary is composed of the medulla and cortex, covered with germinalepithelium.F. THE FEMALE PELVISFunctions
The primary function of the pelvic girdle is to allow movement of the bodyespecially walking and running. It permits the body to sit and kneel.
The woman’s pelvis is adapted to child-bearing, and because of its increasedwidth and rounded brim, women are less speedy than men.
The female pelvis, because of its characteristics, gives rise to no difficultiesduring in childbirth, provided that the fetus is of normal size.Pelvic Bones
There are four pelvic bones:1.two innominate (nameless) or hip bones each innominate bone iscomposed of three bones:
The ilium
The ischium
The pubic bone2.one sacrum3.one coccyx

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