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AP Bio Giant Review Pt1

AP Bio Giant Review Pt1

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Published by mutters
AP Biology review. 4 parts. Atoms, cells, organelles, and other stuff
AP Biology review. 4 parts. Atoms, cells, organelles, and other stuff

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Published by: mutters on Mar 26, 2009
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06/16/2009

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Bio Review 1
st
Installment:1.Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom. Mass number is the number of protons and the neutrons added together. Isotopeis atoms w/ same numbers of proton and different numbers of neutron. Isotopes have same atomic number but different mass number.2.Half life is the time it takes half the amount of the atoms in a radioactive material to go through radioactive decay, and releaseradioactive particles.3.Energy in atoms can be held by the nucleus and the electrons. The electrons hold normal energy such as “heat” and “light” whilenucleus holds atomic energy – intermolecular forces. Regular energy is used for normal chemical reactions, while atomic energies isconsumed and released in large quantities, not usable in regular circumstances. Only in fusion and fission.4.Chemical bonds come in Ionic and Covalent. Ionic involves the exchanging of electrons and the attraction between opposite charges,while covalent bonds depends on shared electrons, and the atoms are bonded by intermolecular forces.5.Valence electrons are the electrons on the outer most shell of an atom and are used to in bonding, thus all chemical bondings dependon valence electrons.6.Electron negativity is based on the forces pulling on the electrons between the oxygen moleculesand hydrogen molecules. The atoms pull electrons toward their own nucleus at different strength,cause electron negativity. Surface tension is caused by water molecules adhesion to each other dueto it's high polar state caused by electron negativity. Hydrogen bond holds H2O molecules together.H-bonds exist only between a specific electron negativity range. Too high then it's ionic and toolow it's covalent. H2O has high specific heat due to the great amount of strength between the H2Omolecules. High bond strength requires greater amount of heat energy to separate theintermolecular bonds. H2O is hydrophilic. It is water, thus it likes other water molecules in order toachieve cohesion. Water is neither acid nor base. It is neutral. Inside a cell, water often havedifferent organelles within, the objects plus the cohesive property of water makes it very viscous. pH is calculated by taking the negative log of the molarity of the H+ ion concentration in theliquid. If pH is greater than 7, it is usually taken the pOH and subtract from 14. Only moleculeswith oxygen atoms, nitrogen atoms, hydrogen atoms, and fluoride atoms can achieve H-bond.7.Macromolecules include fatty acid, carbohydrates, protein, and DNA/nucleic acid. Fatty acid is long carbon chain with hydrogenatoms on the side. It is used to store energy in least space taking form. Carbohydrates is made of carbon rings connected together. Thecarbon rings are connected to OH- ions and linked together, forms a much more complex way to story energy. However it isinefficient to store energy that way, a lot can be packed together. Protein is made of assorted elements folded in different shapes tofacilitate bodily chemical reactions. And nucleic acid is made of a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. It is used to formgenetic informations due to various ways of arranging the DNA.8.Organic chemistry uses function groups that contain carbon bonds, oxygen bonds, and nitrogen bonds for those three elements areessential for survival of carbon based organisms.9.Dehydration is the removal of H+ and OH- ends in monomers so to form bigger macromolecules. While hydrolysis is the break up of water molecules and fitting the H+ and OH- ions to the ends of macromolecules so to break them up to smaller monomers.10.A polymer must be a chain of monomer connected together and create a functioning molecule.11.Carbon have 4 valence electrons, it can be either made positive ion or negative ion. It allows a great number of atoms to be attached toit, and can fold into many different forms to accommodate different orientation required for chemical reaction.12.Carbohydrates are sugar connected in the same orientation. Di are 2 glucose molecules connected together and polysaccharides aremany glucose molecules connected together.13.Isomers are molecules made up of same number of atoms (same number in kind and actual count) but have different arranges. Theyare denoted in it's chemical formula and the naming of the molecule.14.Fat can be saturated or unsaturated. It means the carbon links can be completely filled w/ H+ ions or have holes. Unsaturated fats areliquid at room temperature.15.The saturated fats have filled carbon chain, makes them much more structure stable. Thus it's solid at room temperature. Unsaturatedfat have double bonds between carbon chain, thus the bonds between fatty acids are unstable, resulting in liquid state in roomtemperature.16.Proteins have assorted uses, ranging from transportation, to chemical reaction, to markers. Fibrous is used as markers and also inmuscles to facilitate movement. Globular can be enzymes that encase substrates and facilitate chemical reaction. And small peptidesare used to from organelles for cellular functions.17.The amino acid are used on their link in the RNA chain. Depending on the original DNA marker, useless codings are usually cut outduring RNA synthesis and thus unused code for amino acid are never translated.18.Hydrophobic and hydrophilic help proteins to it's shape and bends the amino acids in order of water presences.19.The different structure of proteins are basically different ways to fold amino acids. It can start as a line of amino acids – primary, after first folding it can be secondary. Fold again from bent to circular can be tertiary. And finally complex foldings to form specificstructures will from the quaternary proteins.20.Denaturization is when proteins loses it's structures due to pressure, heat, or stress. When proteins are denatured, it loses it'sfunctionability and can no longer do the job it used to do. (wrong structure thus old substrates can't fit anymore)21.DNA and RNA have the same nucleotides from person to person. Also, the basic structures are the same (about 99.99%) in order toform same kind of humans. The difference creates the different faces and different body traits.22.The origin of life is still a mystery. How ever carbon is needed to create life, same as proteins for it is essential for building bodilyorgans and cells. Energy is also an absolute must, thus energy sources like the sun and heat are needed to sustain life.23.All living things are made of cells, have membrane, go through homeostasis, can metabolize for energy, and can die.24.Endosymbiotic theory says that early bacterias encase one another and the inside still lives and helps the outside bacteria survive by providing easier energy, while the bigger bacteria help by more efficient transportation and food intake. Evidence can be see by thevarious organelles, especially the mitochondria for it contains it's own DNA and can digest food.25.The cell theory says that all organism are born and made of cells. Not made into law due to uncertain for the come about of the firstcell.26.Prokaryote cells are single cell bacterias that have cell wall, membrane, DNA (not in nucleus) and ribosoms. Animals cells and plantcells have a nucleus and DNA inside it, assorted organelles. Plants also have a central vacuole and cell wall.

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