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Fusus al-Hikam _Pearls of Wisdom_ by Ibn ʿArabī

Fusus al-Hikam _Pearls of Wisdom_ by Ibn ʿArabī

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Know, that Being qua Being is neither external existence nor mental, since each one is a type of existence. Being itself is not subject to condition nor is it restricted by either absoluteness or restriction. It is neither a universal nor a particular, nor categorized by generality or particular ity.
It is one, but not with a oneness superadded to its Essence, nor is it multiple, since each one of these, accompanies Being, in accordance with its respective degrees and stations, indicated by the verse, “Raiser of Ranks, possessor of the Throne.” Being, there fore, becomes absolute, limited, universal, particular, general, specific, unitary or multiple, without experiencing any change in it its Essence and reality.
Know, that Being qua Being is neither external existence nor mental, since each one is a type of existence. Being itself is not subject to condition nor is it restricted by either absoluteness or restriction. It is neither a universal nor a particular, nor categorized by generality or particular ity.
It is one, but not with a oneness superadded to its Essence, nor is it multiple, since each one of these, accompanies Being, in accordance with its respective degrees and stations, indicated by the verse, “Raiser of Ranks, possessor of the Throne.” Being, there fore, becomes absolute, limited, universal, particular, general, specific, unitary or multiple, without experiencing any change in it its Essence and reality.

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Published by: scparco on Apr 17, 2013
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09/05/2013

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Fusus al-Hikam (Pearls of Wisdom)
MIAREHMAN Page
1
of 
36
Wednesday, April 17, 2013
 
Fu
ṣūṣ al 
-
 Ḥikam
 
The Pearls of Wisdom
Ibn
ʿArabī 
 
Contents:
Ch.1 Being and That is the RealQasyari’s CommentaryCh.2 The Divine NamesQasyari’s CommentaryCh. 3 The Immutable Archetypes and a remark concerning the Manifestations of the NamesCh. 4 Substance and Accident According to the People of AllahCh. 5 Exposition of the Universal Worlds and the Five Divine Planes
 
Fusus al-Hikam (Pearls of Wisdom)
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Ch.1 Being and That is the Real
Shaykh al-Akbar Mohyiddin ibn al-Arabi
 
 Fusus al-Hikam (Pearls of Wisdom)Translation: Dr. Mukhtar Hussain Ali
 Know, that Being qua Being is neither external existence nor mental, since each one is a type of existence. Being itself is not subject to condition nor is it restricted by either absoluteness or restriction. It is neither a universal nor a particular, nor categorized by generality or particularity.It is one, but not with a oneness superadded to its Essence, nor is it multiple, since each one of these, accompanies Being, in accordance with its respective degrees and stations, indicated bythe verse, “Raiser of Ranks, possessor of the Throne.” Being, therefore, becomes absolute,limited, universal, particular, general, specific, unitary or multiple, without experiencing anychange in it its Essence and reality.Being is not a substance, for a substance exists externally without a locus, nor is it a quiddity,which were it to exist would also be in a locus. It is not like specific substances, which need being and its concomitants for its realization. Nor is it an accident, since an accident is defined asthat which exists in a locus, or a quiddity, which were it to exist would be in a locus. Being doesnot exist in the sense that it has a being superadded to it which would necessitate its restriction toa locus. Being is not conceived mentally or externally, rather, its existence is essential andestablished by itself and not by something differentiated from it. Additionally, if it were anaccident, it would subsist in a locus that essentially precedes it in existence, and would result inthe existence of a thing prior to itself. Moreover, the existence of both [substance and accident] issuperadded to them, whereas, it is not possible for Being to be superadded to itself, since thedefinition of both is derived from it, given that Being is more general than and separate fromeither [substance or accident].Being is not a mental construct, as posited by the misguided, because of the realization of itsEssence without a thinker conceiving it, above and beyond their concepts, rational or otherwise,as mentioned by the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) “Allah was, and there wasnothing else with Him.” A reality that can be conceived—”conditioned by association”— rationally and conceptually does not necessitate its being “unconditioned by anything” as well.Therefore, it is not an existential mental attribute such as necessity or contingency, for the Necessary and the contingent, respectively. It is the most universal of all things because of itsuniversal prevalence and embracing of quiddities, even to the extent that it presents the ideas of absolute non-being and relative non-being when contemplated in the mind. The mind determinesthe difference between the two, namely the impossibility of one of them, and the possibility of the other. Since that for which existence is possible, its nonexistence is also possible… and other such propositions.
 
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Being is more manifest with respect to its realization and its identity such that is said that it isself-evident, although it is more hidden than everything else with respect to its quiddity andreality. The one who is the most knowledgeable in creation, spoke the truth when he said in hissupplication, “We have not known You with a full knowledge of Your reality.”Nothing either inthe mind or in external existence is realized except through Being, for it encompasses all things by its Essence and all are things are sustained by it. Were it not for Being, there would benothing in existence, either in the external world or in the mind. Thus, Being sustains all things,rather is identical with all things. It is Being that self-discloses in its different degrees, andmanifests through their forms and realities, either noetically or in external reality; [Being] iscalled the “quiddity,”
(al-mahiya)
or the Immutable Archetypes
(ai-a’yan al-thabita),
as will bediscussed in chapter three, God willing. There is nothing intermediate between Being and non- being, just as there is absolutely nothing intermediate between an existent thing and a non-existent thing.Quiddity, however, is intermediate between its specific existence and non-existence. Somethingthat is purely conceptual does not have realization in actuality
(nafs a\-’amrf\
and the presentdiscussion concerns that which has realization. Being has neither contrary nor like. Since,contrary and like are two existents that are either opposed to each other or are equal to eachother. Being, on the other hand, is different from all realities, because the existence of their opposite and the realization of their like is utterly separate from it. This is indicated by the verse,“Nothing is like unto Him.”
19
Being qua Being is one; therefore, another existence cannot berealized facing it.Through Being contraries are realized and likes are sustained. Indeed, it is Being that manifestsitself in the form of contraries and other forms, necessitating the joining of both sides of acontradiction. Since each side [of the contradiction] negates the other, the difference between thetwo sides is only conceptual. However, in Being all aspects are united since manifestation andhiddenness and all contrary existential qualities are annihilated in Being itself, so there is nodistinction except conceptually. Privative attributes despite their belonging to non-being also pertain to Being from one point of view. Each of the differing aspects—with respect to their mental existence—is the identical with all others, and since both [contraries] are joined in Beingitself they are joined in mental existence as well. Since, were it not for the existence of both [inBeing] they would not have been able to join. The inability of both to join in externalexistence—which is one type of absolute Being—does not negate their joining in Being quaBeing.[Being qua Being] does not accept division and partition, essentially, in the mind or in externalreality, for it is simple. It, therefore, does not have genus, differentium, or definition. It does notaccept intensification or decline in its Essence, since both are conceivable only with respect toeither static [accidents] such as blackness and whiteness, each of which adheres in a separatelocation, or non-static [accidents], which are oriented in a certain direction such as increase anddecrease in the case of motion, and non-increase and decrease, intensity, and weakness. Each of these pairs adheres to Being in accordance with its manifestation and its hiddenness in some of 

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