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Main Concepts of Parenting

Main Concepts of Parenting

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Published by Sarah McMahon

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Published by: Sarah McMahon on Apr 17, 2013
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11/28/2014

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Sarah McMahonChild Development Psychology3/25/13Five main Concepts of ParentingParenting is a difficult journey to go through. You will have to understandhow to care for a child from birth until adulthood. This will require you tounderstand many different developmental ideas and issues with children andadolescents. Because your child is not yet born I will focus on the maindevelopmental concepts for infants to toddlers. I think that the five main concepts of child development from infants to toddlers are, reflexes, motor skills, learning andhabituation, physical growth, and learning language.Infants are born with automatic reflexes that help them develop as they get older. These reflexes will appear and then go away in certain time frames. Throughthere are many reflexes I think the most important ones are, Tonic neck reflex, andsuckling. The suckling reflex is when an infant has something put into their mouthsthey will automatically suck on the object. This will prompt the child to feed whenits mother gives the infant the nipple or the bottle head. This reflex is important tokeep the baby alive and well nourished. The suckling reflex will appear at birth andthis reflex will be replaced with voluntary sucking at four months. The secondimportant reflex is the tonic neck reflex. This reflex is when the infant outstretcheshis or her arm; the neck will automatically turn so that the infants eyes are lookingat his or her hand. This helps the child eventually understand the concept that theycontrol their own hand. This reflex will disappear, like suckling, at four months. This
 
helps the development of motor skills in the infant. This concept is good for newparents to understand because you will see these interesting reflexes and you willbe able to see how your child is growing developmentally. You will also be able to bewarned about learning issues by the appearance and disappearance of thesereflexes.Motor skills are incredibly important for a child to develop. To learn reflexesinfants learn from simple to complex, head to toe, and center of the body outward.Child learners also have a desire for mastery, this means that the child will want todo a motor skill, such as dropping a cup, over and over until they fully understandthe concept. One of the most important motor skills is reaching and grasping. Thisprocess of reaching and grasping starts at two to three months with swiping andpre-reaching. This is where the infant will use large swiping arms. Then they willstarts to actually reach for things intentionally. They also develop palmer grasp, thisis the reflex of grasping anything placed in the infants palm. At five to six months theinfant will be able to sit up, granting them use of both arms and hands. The infant will start to develop depth perception and will reach and grasp at things in a moredeliberate way. At nine to ten months the child will develop a pincer grasp, this iswhen the child can pick up things like cheerios and raisins with just the thumb andpointer finger. Once again you can expect your child to do these movementsrepeatedly in order to habituate them. This is an important concept to knowbecause you will most likely get tired of having your child drop or reach forsomething repeatedly you will understand that they need to habituate the actions inorder to learn.
 
Infants and toddlers learn through a process called habituation. This processstats when an infant looks at and tries to understand a novel, or new, idea, picture,or concept. Looking at novel things is an automatic reflex to help the infant understand more information about its surroundings every day. A study of habituation in infants showed us that an infant takes about 30 seconds for a child tohabituate to a picture. This study also showed us that infants will recover interest for things that they have habituated. This is a beginning to showing us how muchcapacity for memory certain aged infants have. This is important for parentsbecause parents should know how to mentally stimulate infants so that they canhabituate and recover appropriately.As a parent you will need to be able to deal with physical growth in yourchild. Not only growth of the body, but of the brain as well. As a parent of a newchild you need to know that the mot important part of the brain for learning, thecerebral cortex is the last to stop growing. This gives you time to enrich your infant and help their different lobes of the brain develop. The brain is and incredibly
important organ for you to help as a parent, but don’t forg
et about the body of thechild as well. In the United States there are many children who are either obese ormalnourished. The best nutrition for your infant is going to be breast milk. This isbecause breast milk has all of the essential nutrients for a small child. Some motherswill intentionally not breastfeed their infants. Though this is easy and fast for thebusy mother it will not be beneficial to the infant because formula is lacking in all of the natural nutrients in breast milk. Another physical growth issue you will comealong is puberty in your son or daughter. This hormone growth will happen in

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