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How Inertial Navigation System works accurately with reliability?

How Inertial Navigation System works accurately with reliability?

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Published by Pari Sharma
The independence from external signals makes inertial navigation technology reliable and beneficial for the availability and integrity of position updates. The proper knowledge of high-tech sensors is required in buying and installation of inertial navigation systems.
The independence from external signals makes inertial navigation technology reliable and beneficial for the availability and integrity of position updates. The proper knowledge of high-tech sensors is required in buying and installation of inertial navigation systems.

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Pari Sharma on Apr 18, 2013
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04/18/2013

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How Inertial Navigation System works accurately with reliability?
 The independence from external signals makes inertial navigation technology reliable and beneficial for the availability and integrity of position updates. Theproper knowledge of high-tech sensors is required in buying and installation of inertial navigation systems. In this article, we will bring you in the deepness of the introduction of inertial technology 
. So, let’s start with the concept of inertial
measurement unit.
Inertial Measurement Unit
In that case, three perpendicular accelerometers and gyroscopes work under aparticular set and this set of sensors is 
(IMU). Inorder to become reliable and accurate, the current IMUs are free from any moving parts. This is known as strap-down system. There is internal softwarewhich converts the three principal axes of different systems into a compactsystem of three principal axes. In particular, the gyros do not contain objectswhich rotate faster. In fact, they rely on the electromagnetic laser beamsinterference. There are two technologies work in this concept. Either a fiber optic wiretransmits the laser beams along with other circular windings or the beams arecontinuously reflected until they reach at their own track. The formertechnology is Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) and the later one is known as Ring LaserGyro (RLG). The rotation of gyro is important in constant way. Otherwisedisturbance occurs between the two opposite beams. During rotation, theslightly increased wavelength is on one beam and slightly reduced wavelengthremains on another one. As a result, the measure rotation slightly changes theinterference of both beams.Since these gyros are more accurate, the inertial navigation systems becomemore expensive to buy and install. However, the three accelerometers aresimple and easily available at cheap price. For instance, motion sensing gamecontrollers and cell phones. They feature certain weight which enables themmoving in different directions. The force of magnetic field keeps it in a certainplace. If the strength of magnetic field fails to prevent it from acceleration, theweight will automatically be shifted. This type of change gives accelerationwhich is measured.
Software functions
 
In case the 3D coordination system is defined on the vessel board, all the threehigh-tech sensors of inertial navigational system will be capable to analyze therotations of yaw, pitch and roll and the accelerations of surge, sway andheave. This is proved that the position or velocity cannot be measured directly by the inertial measurement unit. The software evaluates the initial velocity along with all accelerations accurately. In addition, it calculates the position by adding all velocities at an initial position. Such type of operation is known asintegration in mathematics. In a certain position, the initial inputs mostly stay at zero velocity and it can be updated at a known position. However, a bettersolution is there to regularly calculate the velocity and acceleration. This way,Inertial Navigation System is an equipment to interpolate among the positionupdates and velocity. The output quality of the Inertial Navigation System is mainly relies on theinput quality. By using inertial sensors and smoothing filters, the issues of random inaccuracies can be fixed permanently. The input of velocity should befixed with the differences in position if no change in course or acceleration isdetected. In general, Kalman filtering is a technique that can easily detect andremove any artificial jump or a single outlier in the evaluated velocity orposition. This formula has made INS an excellent device to monitor integrity. This checkup of input integrity is essential because the track can be affected by any undetected gross error for a while.With regards to the standard deviation, the detection of gross error can easily be done at the specified and expected level of inaccuracy. The results could not
be reliable if the real data quality and the given standard deviation don’t
match. For instance, the velocity cannot be matched with the position changesif the input of velocity is poorer than it has been anticipated. The rejection of position input and outlier are mainly responsible for that. Even more, the poorvelocity input can influence the positions which result in wrong track. But, thetrack can be corrected in the position if the input is detected suddenly. The inertial navigation system could invariably be blamed because this strong jump in input may lead to serious consequences for the input of an autopilot ina busy shipping track. However, the high quality filters work on integrity monitoring algorithms can match the quality of velocity input in a statedmanner. In this manner, the INS has the filter that can be strongly beneficialfor the user by reducing the effect of inaccuracies and preventing the chancesof gross errors in the input.

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