Since the 1950s the development agenda has beencharacterized by projects and programs aimed atimproving the quality of life of beneficiary communities,be it in physical or qualitative terms. Despite significantinputs of human and financial resources, many fell shortof expectations. Projects failed to meet the priorityneeds of communities; stated outputs were not achievedor, if achieved, not sustained; target groups did notbenefit in the manner intended; project costs escalatedand implementation dates slipped; and adverseoutcomes were not anticipated.These failures were attributed in part to poor projectmanagement, such as inadequate opportunities forpotential beneficiaries to participate in projectidentification, weak financial management, inadequatemonitoring during implementation, poor linkagesbetween project activities and project purpose, andinsufficient attention to the external
environment duringproject design. It was also recognized that projects weremore likely to succeed when account was taken of thesocio-economic context in which they operated.The rationale for using sound project management is toachieve sustainable development.The simplest definition of a project is "it is a unique setof activities with a beginning and an end, undertaken tomeet some established goals, objectives and deliverableswithin defined constraints of scope, quality, time, costand stakeholder or customer satisfaction."More than 2,500 years ago, the famous Chinesephilosopher, Confucius, expressed this sentiment. "In allthings, success depends upon previous preparation - andwithout such preparation there is sure to be failure." Inmodern parlance, this elementary observation translatesinto a simple two-step sequence: 'Plan before doing', orthe more popular exhortation 'Plan Your Work, WorkYour Plan!' This
basic concept is the foundation of theproject life cycle by which projects need to be managed.First plan, then produce.
PROJECT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
(Project Planning / Project Formulation / Project Implementation / Preparation of ProjectProposal)
S.Rengasamy,Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
One Of the most important administrative developments in the developed as well as in developing countrieshas been the initiation and growth of a large number of new programs projects in every field likeagriculture, irrigation, industry, communitydevelopment and social welfare etc.. The principleaims and objectives of all these programs have beento bring about overall changes in the existing socio-economic structure in the country providing therebydignified way of life to a citizen as a unit and socio-economic up liftment of the society.So most of the administrators are directly concernedwith the program / project administration than other activities. The capability of administrative system toformulate and implement, relevant and in able programs effectively constitutes a crucial element inthe process of development. Development requires planning and planning includes a lot of programs / projects. Plan requires projects and projects require alot of planning.As in the case of all definitions, the term program / project has a variety of meaning.
Definition of a project
Programs / Projects are tools to achieve theplan goals
.E.g. Plan goal – Removal of poverty.Plan tool –
IRDP, JRY, TRYSEM
A project is an investment of resources in apackage of interrelated time found activities.Thus a project becomes a time found task. AProject should have definite beginning and anend.
A project can be defined as a scientificallyevolved work plan devised to achieve specificobjectives within a specific period of time.
An activity (or, usually, a number of related activities) carried out according to a plan in order toachieve a definite objective within a certain time and which will cease when the objective isachieved.
A collection of linked activities, carried out in an organized manner, with a clearly defined startpoint and end point to achieve some specific results desired to satisfy some clearly definedobjectives.
A group of activities that have to be performed in a logical sequence to meet pre-set objectivesoutlined by the client.