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Table Of Contents

Acknowledgement
Abstract
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Problem Statement
1.3 Research Gap
1.4 Research Objectives
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Theoretical Framework
1.7 Significance and Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitations of the Study
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Self-Medication: Definition
2.2 Self-Medication: Spread and Frequency
2.3 Self-Medication: Reasons and Ailments Treated
2.4 Self-Medication: Consumer Behavior
2.5 Self-Medication: Effect of Population Spread, Income and Literacy
2.6 Self-Medication: Perception of Risk
2.7 The National Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede
2.8 Pakistan: The Cultural Dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance
2.9 Hofstede: Criticism
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.1.1 Qualitative Research
3.1.1.1 Focus Group
3.1.2.2 Survey and Questionnaire Design
3.2 Sampling Procedure and Design
3.2.1 Sampling Frame
3.2.2 Sampling Size and Selection
3.3 Field Work for the Survey
3.4 Research Hypothesis
4. DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Reliability Analysis
4.2 Instrument Validity
4.3 Demographics
4.3.1 Frequency Tables
4.3.2 Bar Charts
4.4 Behavioral Analysis
4.5 Confirmatory Factor Analysis
4.6 Pearson’s Correlation Matrix
4.7 Hypothesis Testing
5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendations
AREAS OF FURTHER STUDY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX
a. Focus Group Guide
b. Survey Questionnaire
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An Investigation into Consumer Attitudes and Perception towards Self-Medication in Pakistan in light of the Cultural Dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance

An Investigation into Consumer Attitudes and Perception towards Self-Medication in Pakistan in light of the Cultural Dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance

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Published by Yousuf Zahid
The purpose of the research study is to investigate the perception and attitudes of consumers towards self-medication in light of Hofstede’s cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance. The study had been conducted in Karachi and a sample size of 200 had been utilized for the purpose. Analysis of data obtained from specially designed questionnaire had been fed into statistical software to acquire descriptive statistics together with confirmatory factor loading and correlation matrix analysis. The empirical findings showed that the consumers are risk averse but will be willing to practice self-medication based upon the specific situation they may face in life or due to operational variables which they may be exposed to at any given time e.g. cost of medicine being too high or unavailability of time to wait at a doctor’s clinic. Additionally, the consumer may engage into self-medication based upon good past experience or group influence. Studies in Pakistan have been undertaken on self-medication but not in juxtaposition with any cultural dimension. Future researches on different cultural dimensions of Hofstede vis-à-vis self-medication and for other risk-taking and risk-averse behavior can be conducted in light of this research.
The purpose of the research study is to investigate the perception and attitudes of consumers towards self-medication in light of Hofstede’s cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance. The study had been conducted in Karachi and a sample size of 200 had been utilized for the purpose. Analysis of data obtained from specially designed questionnaire had been fed into statistical software to acquire descriptive statistics together with confirmatory factor loading and correlation matrix analysis. The empirical findings showed that the consumers are risk averse but will be willing to practice self-medication based upon the specific situation they may face in life or due to operational variables which they may be exposed to at any given time e.g. cost of medicine being too high or unavailability of time to wait at a doctor’s clinic. Additionally, the consumer may engage into self-medication based upon good past experience or group influence. Studies in Pakistan have been undertaken on self-medication but not in juxtaposition with any cultural dimension. Future researches on different cultural dimensions of Hofstede vis-à-vis self-medication and for other risk-taking and risk-averse behavior can be conducted in light of this research.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Yousuf Zahid on Apr 19, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/02/2013

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Yousuf Zahid added this note
Some statistical analysis towards the end may appear to be incorrectly written/indicated. Inconvenience caused is regretted.
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