Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Jacob Taubes - The Intellectuals and the University

Jacob Taubes - The Intellectuals and the University

Ratings: (0)|Views: 54|Likes:

More info:

Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Sardanapal ben Esarhaddon on Apr 19, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/04/2014

pdf

text

original

 
19
L...-
_
The
IntellectualsandtheUniversity!
1.
Intellectualsareina
profound
sense
part
of
theinner
history
of
modernity.To
the
degree
that
the
feudalorder
of
theChristianMiddle
Agesmeetsitsdissolution,
the
hierarchicalsociety
that
findsexpressionin
the
spiritual
and
temporalorderswasreplacedbybourgeoissociety
with
newprinciples
of
order
and
legitimacy.
The
new
form
of
legitimization
of
the
bourgeoissociety,
which
pulls
the
transcendentalideal
of
Christian
theology
down
to
earth,
is
thework
of
the
intellectuals.
The
most
striking
vocabularyforthisnewform
of
legitimizationhasperhapsbeencoinedby
Joachim
of
Fioretoward
theend
of
the
twelfthcentury.
His
trinitarian
theology
of
historyforms
the
guidelinefor
the
interpretation
of
the
differentintellectualgroupsin
modern
society.
2
One
hundredand
fiftyyearsbeforePetrarch,
Joachimunderstoodhimself
tobeat
the
dividebetweentwoeras.
If
onewishestocategorize
him
anenthusiast,itisstill
important
toconsider
that
he
did
not
envisioneitheraheavenlybeyondoranewform
of
lifeexperiencedviaillumina-tion,
but
on
thecontrarythe
realization
of
anidealstate
of
things
inachronologicallydatablefuture.
The
idea
of
perfection,
which
medievalCatholictheologyplacedin
the
beyond,was
brought
down
to
earth
by
Joachim
inhisimage
of
the
future
ecclesia
spiritualis.
The
consummation
wasto
occur
not
inarealmbeyonddeath,
but
ratherhere,
during
the
lives
of
men,"
 
The
Intellectuals
andthe
University
283
AlthoughJoachim
understood
thenew
era
of
the
holyspiritconcretelyasstillamonasticorder,
the
idea
of
a
community
made
up
of
thoseperfectedin
the
spirit,
who
live
without
institutionalauthority,wassoclearlyformulatedinhisspeculations
that
numerous
variations
of
thisidea
attaining
prominencein
the
course
of
modern
history
can
allbeprincipallyderivedfromhisconceptualization.
Whether
itis
thehumanist
orencyclopedicperiodization
of
history
into
antiquity,
theMiddle
Ages,
and
modernity,or
the
philosophicalchiliasmfromLessingtoHegel
and
Marx,
orTurgor's
and
Comte'sclassification
of
historyintotheological,metaphysical,
and
positivistic-scientificphases,alltheseattempts
of
periodization
of
history,
which
are
determined
by
the
self-interpretation
of
modern
society,
remain
indebtedintheirapproachtoJoachim'shistoricalspeculations."
Here
it
hardly
makesadifference
that
the
newera
Joachim
predictsis
not
enactedasamonasticorder
of
an
intelligentia
spiritualis,
that
is,
not
asspirituality,
but
insteadbecomesmanifestas
spiritus
scien-
tiae,
asscience.
2.
The
firstindications
of
anewself-interpretation
of
the
nascentbourgeoissociety
can
bedetectedin
the
beginnings
of
theuniversities
during
the
Middle
Ages.
If
oneproceedsfrom
the
German
exampleonly,
then
the
trace
of
thiscontextisobfuscatedbecausein
the
course
of
the
inception
of
the
German
universities
the
antifeudal
impetus
does
not
cometolight.
When
Charles
IV
founded
the
firstuniversityin
theGerman
empiretherewerealreadyfifteenuniversitiesinItaly,eightinFrance,sixon
the
IberianPeninsula,
and
Oxford
and
Cambridge
inEngland.
The
founders
of
Prague'sCharlesUniversityexpresslymentionParis
and
Bolognain
theirfoundingdocument.
Sincethen,theseforeignmodels,
and
Parisaboveall,were
most
oftenevoked
when
newuniversitieswere
founded
in
the
German
empire."
Of
course,
the
German
copiesdifferfromtheFrenchoriginalinonerespect.
They
arecollectively,
whether
royalorcivic,foundationsby
the
powerstobe.
What
fellto
German
doctors
and
scholars
auctoritate
regia
asprivileges
and
rights,"precisely
that
element
of
cooperativeau
tonomy
that
remainsconstitutiveforWesternuniversitiestothisday
if
oftenonlyformally,inParis
had
beenfoughtforinalong
and
difficultstruggle
during
whichthe
external
and
internalconstitution
of
the
uni-
versity
took
shape.'ItwaspreciselyinParis
that
masters
and
students
 
284
RELIGION
AND
CULTURE
cametogetherindefenseagainstecclesiastic
and
governmentalclaims,toformanautonomous
community,
an
universitas.
The
earliestevidenceforthisconcept
can
be
found
in
1213
inParis
and
unequivocallymeans
the
universitasmagistrorumetscholiarum,
precisely
that
confraternity
of
lecturers
and
students
who
organizedthemselvestoprotect
their
common
scholarly
interests."
Thiscommunity
itself:
andnot
the
governmentalorecclesiasticauthorities,created
the
forms
of
self-government
that
remain
characteristic
of
the
university
today,"
One
usuallyunderstandstheseinstitutions
of
cooperativeself-go
vernment
asmedievalforms
and
hardlyconsiders
howunusual
oractually
howmodernthe
institution
of
theuniversityappearsin
the
high-medievalera
of
feudalsociety.Intheirstructure,
the
universities
disrupted
the
feudal-hierarchical
structure
of
medievalsociety.Even
if
wearestillabletointegrate
the
universality
of
the
medievaluniversity
into
thecommon
conception
of
theMiddle
Ages,thisbecomesimpossible
when
weconsider
the
university'ssocialstructure.For
the
universitybringstogetherpeople
of
all
estates'?
into
one
community.
Even
though
masters
and
students
dividedthemselvesaccordingtoregionalorigin
[LandsmannschaftenJ,
initiallyitremainedimmaterial
whichland
or
culturetheycame
from.
II
Itisastonishing
that
therewasnoprivilege
of
birth,not
evenin
the
case
of
selectingrectors
and
deans,
and
thisata
timewhen
inall
other
aspects
of
publiclife,including
the
ecclesiasticorders,
the
nobilityunquestionablylaidclaimtoprivilege
and
receiveditaccordingly.Inthisregard,
thenew
universitycooperative,similarto
the
mendicant
orders
of
thethirteenth
century,
pointed
beyond
the
feudal
and
hierarchic
structure
of
theMiddle
Ages.
The
universityalsotranscended
the
ecclesiasticdifferentiationbetweenlaymen
and
clerics.
With
the
claim
of
a
new
ordo
extolledby
the
university,these
fundamental
concepts
of
thechurchmutated
aswell.Since
thefounding
of
the
university,
clericus
nolongerreferred
only
toa
man
of
the
cloth
but
alsoto
thestudent
and
to
the
scholar,even
if
he
had
not
receivedecclesiasticordination.'?Asasecularor"laicist"term,
clericus
hasbeenpreservedinFrench
and
Englishusage:"leclerc"or
"the
clerk"referstotheintellectual,
who
stoodincontrast
only
to
theuneducated
asthelayperson.
The
community
of
masters
and
scholarsrepresentedanewclass.As

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->