shows.Most countries in higher HDI brackets also recorded steady HDI gains since 2000, though at lower levels ofabsolute HDI improvement than the highest achievers in the low-HDI grouping.Hong Kong, Latvia, Republic of Korea, Singapore and Lithuania showed the greatest 12-year HDIimprovement in the Very High Human Development quartile of countries in the HDI; Algeria, Kazakhstan,Iran, Venezuela and Cuba were the top five HDI improvers in the High Human Development countries; andTimor-Leste, Cambodia, Ghana, Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Mongolia were the HDI growthleaders in the Medium Human Development grouping.When the HDI is adjusted for internal inequalities in health, education and income, some of the wealthiestnations fall sharply in the rankings: the United States falls from #3 to #16in the inequality-adjusted HDI, andSouth Korea descends from #12 to #28. Sweden, by contrast, rises from #7 to #4 when domestic HDIinequalities are taken into account.The 2013 Report’s Statistical Annex also includes two experimental indices, the Multidimensional PovertyIndex (MPI) and the Gender Inequality Index (GII).The GII is designed to measure gender inequalities as revealed by national data on reproductive health,women’s empowerment and labour market participation. The Netherlands, Sweden and Denmark top theGII, with the least gender inequality. The regions with the greatest gender inequality as measured by the GIIare sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the Arab States.The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) examines factors at the household level that together provide afuller portrait of poverty than income measurements alone. The MPI is not intended to be used for nationalrankings, due to significant differences among countries in available household survey data.In the 104 countries covered by the MPI, about 1.56 billion people are estimated to live in multidimensionalpoverty. The countries with the highest percentages of ‘MPI poor’ are all in Africa: Ethiopia (87%), Liberia(84%), Mozambique (79%) and Sierra Leone (77%). Yet the largest absolute numbers of multi-dimensionallypoor people live in South Asia, including 612 million in India alone.The Report also reviews key regional development trends, as shown by the HDI and other data:
The region’s average HDI value of 0.652 is fourth out of the six developing country regionsanalysed in the Report, with Yemen achieving the fastest HDI growth since 2000 (1.66%). The region has thelowest employment-to–population ratio (52.6%), well below the world average of 65.8%.
East Asia and the Pacific:
The region has an average HDI value of 0.683 and registered annual HDI valuegrowth between 2000 and 2012 of 1.31%, with Timor-Leste leading with 2.71%, followed by Myanmar at2.23%. The East Asia-Pacific region has the highest employment-to–population ratio (74.5%) in thedeveloping world.
Eastern Europe and Central Asia:
The average HDI value of 0.771 is the highest of the sixdeveloping-country regions. Multi-dimensional poverty is minimal, but it has the second lowestemployment-to-population ratio (58.4%) of the six regions.
Latin America and the Caribbean:
The average HDI value of 0.741 is the second highest of the six regions,surpassed only by Eastern Europe and Central Asia average. Multi-dimensional poverty is relatively low, andoverall life satisfaction, as measured by the Gallup World Poll, is 6.5 on a scale from 0 to 10, the highest ofany region.
The average HDI value for the region of 0.558 is the second lowest in the world. Between 2000and 2012, the region registered annual growth of 1.43% in HDI value, which is the highest of the regions.Afghanistan achieved the fastest growth (3.9%), followed by Pakistan (1.7%) and India (1.5%).
The average HDI value of 0.475 is the lowest of any region, but the pace ofimprovement is rising. Between 2000 and 2012, the region registered average annual growth of 1.34percent in HDI value, placing it second only to South Asia, with Sierra Leone (3.4%) and Ethiopia (3.1%)achieving the fastest HDI growth.The Human Development Index (HDI) was introduced in the first Human Development Report in 1990 as acomposite measurement of development that challenged purely economic assessments of nationalprogress. The HDI in the 2013 Report covers 187 countries and territories. Data constraints precluded HDIestimates for eight countries: Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea,San Marino, Somalia, South Sudan and Tuvalu. HDI values and rankings as presented in the Report’s