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The Costs and Benefits of Economic Migration

The Costs and Benefits of Economic Migration

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Published by reservoirgeogs

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Published by: reservoirgeogs on Mar 27, 2009
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08/02/2010

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The Costs and Benefits of EconomicMigrationIMPACT ON ORIGIN / SOURCE COUNTRY
ECONOMIC COSTS
Loss of young adult labour force
 
Loss of skills base and entrepreneurs - could slow economic development 
 
out - migration may cause spital of decline which is difficult to halt (see link onNE Deindustrialisation blog)
 
Loss of labour may discourage inward investment, increasing dependence ongovernment support.
ECONOMIC BENEFITS
Prospect of reduced under emloyment in the source country 
 
Returning migrants bring new skills to the country which may revitalise homecountry economy 
 
Money sent home by migrants may be invested in the home economy or businesses
 
Les pressure on resources including basic supplies such as food and water and essentail services such as healthcare
SOCIAL COSTS
Perceived benefits of migration continue to encourage following generations tomigrate with a net detrimental effect on social structure
 
Disproportionate number of females left behind 
 
Non return of migrants leaves imbalance in population structure with long termconsequences
 
Returning retired migrants may impose social cost on the community if there isan inadequate support mechanism to cater for them
SOCIAL BENEFITS
 
Population density reduced and birth rate decreases (young fertile who migrate)
Money sent home by migrants can finance improved education and healthcarefacilities
 
Returning retired migrants increase social expectations within the community,e.g., demand for better leisure facilities
IMPACT ON DESTINATION COUNTRY
ECONOMIC COSTS
Cost of educating migrants' children
 
Increasing over dependence on migrant labour to support some industries (e.g.vegetable picking in East Anglia)
 
Leakage of money earned by migrants, including pension payments, goes back to country of origin
 
Increased numbers of people puts pressure on existing resources such ashealth services and education.
ECONOMIC BENEFITS
Migrants take up less desirable jobs
 
Host country gains skilled labour at reduced cost 
 
'Skills gap' in host country may be filled by qualified migrant workers
 
Retirement costs are transferred back to the source country 
SOCIAL COSTS
Discrimination against minorities leads to civil unrest and political extremism
 
The dominance of males is reinforced, especially in countries where the statusof women is low, e.g., Persian Gulf states
 
 Aspects of cultural identity are lost, particularly among second and third generation migrants
 
Segregated areas of similar ethnic groups are created, and schools becomedominated by migrant children
SOCAIL BENEFITS

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