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Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China)
46
(2006) pp. 639–642c
International Academic Publishers Vol. 46, No. 4, October 15, 2006
Mechanism of Gravity Impulse
WU Ning
Institute of High Energy Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918-1, Beijing 100049, China
(Received December 21, 2005)
Abstract
It is well known that energy-momentum is the source of gravitational field. For a long time, it is generally believed that only stars with huge masses can generate strong gravitational field. Based on the unified theory of gravitational interactions and electromagnetic interactions, a new mechanism of the generation of gravitational field is studied. According to this mechanism, in some special conditions, electromagnetic energy can be directly converted into gravitational energy, and strong gravitational field can be generated without massive stars. Gravity impulse found inexperiments is generated by this mechanism.
PACS numbers:
04.60.-m, 04.50.+h, 04.80.Cc, 04.90.+e, 04.30.Db
Key words:
mechanism of generation of gravitational field, gravity impulse, quantum gravity, unified theoryof fundamental interactions
1 Introduction
Gravity is one kind of fundamental interaction whichis known by human beings in very ancient times. In New-ton’s classical theory of gravity, gravity obeys the inversesquare law and the magnitude of gravity is proportionalto the mass of the object.
[1]
In Einstein’s general theoryof gravity, gravity is treated as space-time geometry.
[2
,
3]
In both Newton’s classical theory of gravity and Ein-stein’s general relativity, gravitational field is generated byenergy-momentum of matter field, and there is no otherway that can directly convert energy of electromagneticfield into energy of gravitational field.Quantum gauge theory of gravity (QGTG) was firstproposed in 2001.
[4
7]
It is a quantum theory of gravityproposed in the framework of quantum gauge field the-ory. An important breakthrough on QGTG is obtainedin 2003, when quantum gauge general relativity (QGGR)was proposed in the framework of quantum gauge theoryof gravity.
[8
,
9]
In QGGR, the field equation of gravitationalgauge field is just Einstein’s field equation, so in classicallevel, we can set up its geometrical formulation,
[10]
andQGGR returns to Einstein’s general relativity in classicallevel. In QGGR, the equation of motion of a mass point ingravitational field is given by Newton’s second law of mo-tion, which is equivalent to the geodesic equation in gen-eral relativity.
[11
,
12]
For classical tests of gravity, QGGRgives the same theoretical predictions as those of generalrelativity.
[12]
In quantum level, QGTG is a perturbatively renor-malizable quantum theory, so based on it, quantum ef-fects of gravity and gravitational interactions of some ba-sic fields
[13
,
14]
can be explored. In QGTG, unificationsof fundamental interactions including gravity can be ful-filled in a simple and beautiful way.
[15
17]
Gravitationalphase effects found in COW experiments
[18
20]
and gravi-tationally bound quantized states found recently
[21
,
22]
canbe understood in a natural way.
[23]
Besides, QGTG pos-sibly solved the cosmological constant problems,
[24]
andpredicts the gravitational Aharonov–Bohm effect.
[23]
Inthe surface of a neutron star or near black hole, the grav-itomagnetic field is relatively strong, and measuring theposition of the spectral line of the radiation or absorptioninduced by gravitomagnetic field can help us to determinethe strength of the gravitomagnetic field in the surface of the star.
[25]
If we use the mass generation mechanism thatwas proposed in literature,
[26]
we can propose a new the-ory on gravity, which contains massive graviton and theintroduction of massive graviton does not affect the strictlocal gravitational gauge symmetry of the theory and doesnot affect the traditional long-range gravitational force.
[27]
The existence of massive graviton will help us to under-stand the possible origin of dark energy and dark matterin the universe.There is another important quantum effect of grav-itational interactions, the gravitational shielding effectfound by Podkletnov.
[28
,
29]
This effect originates fromthe interactions between gravitational field and non-homogeneous vacuum, which makes gravitational field ob-tain a small mass term.
[30]
In 2001, Podkletnov foundthat discharges originating from a superconducting ce-ramic electrode are accompanied by the emission of grav-itational impulse.
[31
,
32]
Gravity impulse cannot be under-stood in Einstein’s general relativity. For a long time, itsmechanism is unknown. Some people think that the phe-nomenon of gravity impulse is not consistent with Ein-stein’s general relativity, and therefore the result is nottrue. Some even doubt the reality of the experiments. In
E-mail address: wuning@mail.ihep.ac.cn
 
640 WU Ning Vol. 46
this paper, based on the unified theory of gravitational in-teractions and electromagnetic interactions, a new mech-anism of the generation of gravitational field is studied.This mechanism can be used to qualitatively explain thegravity impulse found by E. Podkletnov.
2 GU(1) Unification Theory
In QGTG,
[4
9]
the most fundamental quantity is grav-itational gauge field
µ
(
x
), which is the gauge potentialcorresponding to gravitational gauge symmetry. Gaugefield
µ
(
x
) is a vector in the gravitational Lie algebra,which can be expanded as
µ
(
x
) =
αµ
(
x
)ˆ
α
(
µ,α
= 0
,
1
,
2
,
3)
,
(1)where
αµ
(
x
) is the component field andˆ
α
=
i
∂/∂x
α
is the generator of the global gravitational gauge group.The gravitational gauge covariant derivative is given by
D
µ
=
∂ 
µ
i
gC 
µ
(
x
) =
G
αµ
∂ 
α
,
(2)where
g
is the gravitational coupling constant and matrix
G
is defined by
G
= (
G
αµ
) = (
δ 
αµ
gC 
αµ
)
.
(3)Its inverse matrix is denoted as
G
1
,
G
1
=1
gC 
= (
G
1
µα
)
.
(4)Using matrix
G
,
G
1
, and Minkowski metric
η
, we candefine two important composite operators,
g
αβ
=
η
µν 
G
αµ
G
βν 
,
(5)
g
αβ
=
η
µν 
G
1
µα
G
1
ν β
,
(6)which are widely used in QGTG. In QGTG, space-time isalways flat and space-time metric is always the Minkowskimetric, so
g
αβ
and
g
αβ
are no longer space-time metrictensors. They are only two-composite operators whichconsist of gravitational gauge field.The field strength of gravitational gauge field is definedby
µν 
=1
i
g
[
D
µ
, D
ν 
]
.
(7)Its explicit expression is
µν 
(
x
) =
∂ 
µ
ν 
(
x
)
∂ 
ν 
µ
(
x
)
i
gC 
µ
(
x
)
ν 
(
x
)+ i
gC 
ν 
(
x
)
µ
(
x
)
.
(8)
µν 
is also a vector in gravitational Lie algebra,
µν 
(
x
) =
αµν 
(
x
)
·
ˆ
α
,
(9)where
αµν 
=
∂ 
µ
αν 
∂ 
ν 
αµ
gC 
βµ
∂ 
β
αν 
+
gC 
βν 
∂ 
β
αµ
.
(10)Using matrix
G
, its expression can be written in a simplerform,
αµν 
=
G
βµ
∂ 
β
αν 
G
βν 
∂ 
β
αµ
.
(11)In the unified theory of gravitational interactions andelectromagnetic interactions, the Lagrangian of theory isselected to be
[15
,
9]
L
0
=
¯
ψ
[
γ 
µ
(
D
µ
i
eA
µ
) +
m
]
ψ
14
η
µρ
η
νσ
A
µν 
A
ρσ
116
η
µρ
η
νσ
g
αβ
αµν 
βρσ
18
η
µρ
G
1
ν β
G
1
σα
αµν 
βρσ
+14
η
µρ
G
1
ν α
G
1
σβ
αµν 
βρσ
,
(12)where
A
µ
is the electromagnetic field, and
A
µν 
=
D
µ
A
ν 
D
ν 
A
µ
+
gG
1
λα
A
λ
αµν 
(13)is the gravitational gauge covariant field strength of electromagnetic field. This system has GU(1) gaugesymmetry.
[15]
3 Field Equation of Electromagnetic Field inGravitational Field
uler–Lagrangian equation gives the following fieldequation of electromagnetic field
[9]
η
µρ
(
D
µ
A
ρν 
) =
µ
η
µν 
η
λρ
(
∂ 
µ
G
µλ
)
A
ρν 
+
g
2
η
µρ
η
λσ
η
νν 
1
G
1
ν 
1
α
A
ρσ
αµλ
λρ
G
1
κα
(
D
λ
ακ
)
A
ρν 
,
(14)where
µ
is the electric current of Dirac field,
µ
= i
e
¯
ψγ 
µ
ψ.
(15)The generalized Bianchi identity for electromagnetic fieldis
D
µ
A
νλ
+
D
ν 
A
λµ
+
D
λ
A
µν 
=
αµν 
(
∂ 
α
A
λ
)
ανλ
(
∂ 
α
A
µ
)
αλµ
(
∂ 
α
A
ν 
)
.
(16)The above two equations (14) and (16) are strict re-lations. Now, let us consider their approximations in thelimit of weak gravitational gauge field. Suppose that grav-itational field
gC 
αµ
is a first-order infinitesimal quantity,then in first-order approximation, equation (14) gives thefollowing two equations:
·
 
e
=
0
+
g∂ 
λ
(
λi
A
i
0
)
g
2
η
µρ
η
λσ
A
ρσ
0
µλ
g
(
∂ 
i
αα
)
A
i
0
g∂ 
i
(
A
α
αi
0
)
,
(17)
∂ ∂t 
e
×
 B
e
i
=
i
+
µρ
∂ 
λ
(
λµ
A
ρi
)+
g
2
η
µρ
η
λσ
A
ρσ
iµλ
λρ
(
∂ 
λ
αα
)
A
ρi
g∂ 
µ
(
A
α
αµi
)
,
(18)and the Bianchi identity (16) gives the following two equa-tions:
∂ ∂t B
e
+
×
 
e
=
gC 
α
0
(
∂ 
α
 B
e
)
g 
α
×
∂ 
α
 
e
 
No. 4 Mechanism of Gravity Impulse 641
 
α
×
∂ 
α
 A
+ (
∂ 
α
A
0
)
 B
α
,
(19)
·
 B
e
=
g 
α
·
(
∂ 
α
 B
e
) +
 B
α
·
(
∂ 
α
 A
)
,
(20)where
αi
=
α
0
i
, 
α
= (
α
1
,
α
2
,
α
3
)
,
(21)
B
αi
=
12
ε
ijk
αjk
, B
α
= (
B
α
1
,B
α
2
,B
α
3
)
,
(22)
ei
=
A
i
0
, 
e
= (
e
1
,
e
2
,
e
3
)
,
(23)
B
ei
=12
ε
ijk
A
jk
, B
e
= (
B
e
1
,B
e
2
,B
e
3
)
,
(24)
A
µν 
=
D
µ
A
ν 
D
ν 
A
µ
,
(25)
 
α
= (
α
1
,
α
2
,
α
3
)
.
(26)
 
α
and
 B
α
are the gravitoelectric field and gravitomag-netic field respectively, and
 
e
and
 B
e
are the electromag-netic electric field and magnetic field respectively. If grav-itational field vanishes, the above equations (17)
(20)return to the Maxwell equations. Equations (17) and (18)can be further changed into
·
 
e
=
0
+
g∂ 
λ
(
 
λ
·
 
e
) +
g 
e
·
 
0
+
g B
e
·
 B
0
g 
e
·
αα
+
g
·
(
A
α
 
α
)
,
(27)
∂ ∂t 
e
×
 B
e
=
 
+
g∂ 
λ
(
λ
0
 
e
) +
g∂ 
λ
(
 
λ
×
 B
e
)
g 
e
·
g B
e
·
B
g 
e
(
∂ 
0
αα
)
g B
e
×
αα
+
g∂ 
0
(
A
α
 
α
)
g
×
(
A
α
 B
α
)
,
(28)where
= (
 
1
, 
2
, 
3
)
,
B
= (
 B
1
, B
2
, B
3
)
,
(29)(
 
e
·
)
i
=
 
e
·
 
i
,
(30)(
 B
e
·
B
)
i
=
 B
e
·
 B
i
.
(31)
4 Mechanism of Gravity Impulse
It is known that superconductor is a perfect diamag-net. Inside the superconductor, electromagnetic electricfield and magnetic field vanish, but in most general case,the electromagnetic gauge potential
A
µ
does not vanish.Because, inside the superconductor, electromagnetic elec-tric field
 
e
vanish, in leading order approximation, wehave
φ
=
˙
 A,
(32)where
φ
=
A
0
(33)is the scalar potential. In this case, equations (27), (28),(19), and (20) are simplified to
g
φ
·
 
0
=
ρ,
(34)
g
˙
φ 
0
g
˙
A
i
 
i
g
φ
×
 B
0
=
 J ,
(35)˙
φ B
0
+
 
0
×
˙
 A
+ (
∂ 
i
φ
)
 B
i
= 0
,
(36)
 B
0
·
˙
 A
= 0
,
(37)where
ρ
=
0
=
0
(38)is the electric charge density. From Eq. (35), we couldsee that, when there is non-vanishing electric current in-side the superconductor, the gravitoelectric field
 
α
andgravitomagnetic field
 B
0
cannot both vanish, otherwiseequation (35) will be violated.Selecting the following coordinate system:
x
-
y
planeis in the surface of the superconducting ceramic disk, and
z
-axis is perpendicular to the surface of the emitter andpointing to the anode.
[31
,
32]
During discharges, gravito-magnetic field
 B
0
vanishes. Then equation (35) is simpli-fied to
g
˙
φ 
0
g
˙
A
i
 
i
=
 J .
(39)In the above equation, the dominant term on the left-handside is
g
˙
φ 
0
, we should have
g
˙
φ 
0
 J .
(40)So, we have
g 
0
 
˙
φ.
(41)Before discharges, the electric scalar potential
φ
of theemitter is negative, and after discharges, it vanishes.Therefore during discharges,˙
φ
is positive˙
φ >
0
.
(42)From the above equation, we know that
 
0
and
 
havethe same direction. The direction of electric current isalong the minus
z
-axis, so
g 
0
is along
z
-axis.
g 
0
is the gravitoelectric field. When a mass pointis in this gravitational field, it feels the following gravita-tional force
 
=
gm 
0
,
(43)where
m
is the mass of the mass point. And this forceis just along the
z
-direction. This just explains what ob-served in the experiments: the radiation emitted duringdischarges exerts a short repulsive force on small movableobjects along the propagation axis, and the impulse is pro-portional to the mass of the objects and independent of their composition.
[31
,
32]
5 Summary and Discussions
In this paper, the mechanism of gravity impulse isstudied in the framework of quantum gauge theory of gravity. This mechanism is essentially a new mechanism

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