(c) Why the performance of a parallel computer is improved by using a two level cachememory? (Year - 2008)Solution:
Modern high end PCs and workstations all have at least two levels of caches: A very fast, and hence notvery big, first level (L1) cache together with a larger but slower L2 cache. Some recent microprocessorshave 3 levels.When a miss occurs in L1, L2 is examined, and only if a miss occurs there is main memory referenced.So the average miss penalty for an L1 miss is
(L2 hit rate)*(L2 time) + (L2 miss rate)*(L2 time + memory time)
We are assuming L2 time is the same for an L2 hit or L2 miss. We are also assuming that the accessdoesn't begin to go to memory until the L2 miss has occurred.
Write at least four differences between a multiprocessor and multicomputer system. (Year - 2008)
Multiprocessor is more than one CPU or one CPU with more than one core in one.Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a singlecomputer system. The term also refers to the ability of a system to support more than one processor and/or the ability to allocate tasks between them.2.A multiprocessor system is simply a computer that has more than one CPU on its motherboard. If theoperating system is built to take advantage of this, it can run different processes (or different threads belonging to the same process) on different CPUs.3.There are many variations on this basic theme, and the definition of multiprocessing can vary withcontext, mostly as a function of how CPUs are defined (multiple cores on one die, multiple chips in one package, multiple packages in one system unit, etc.).4.Multiprocessing sometimes refers to the execution of multiple concurrent software processes in a systemas opposed to a single process at any one instant. However, the terms multitasking or multiprogrammingare more appropriate to describe this concept, which is implemented mostly in software, whereasmultiprocessing is more appropriate to describe the use of multiple hardware CPUs.
Computer multicomputer is more than one computer or a network of computers. A computer made up of several computers. Something similar to parallel computing.2.A multicomputer may be considered to be either a loosely coupled NUMA computer or a tightly coupledcluster. Multicomputers are commonly used when strong computer power is required in an environmentwith restricted physical space or electrical power.3.Distributed computing deals with hardware and software systems containing more than one processingelement or storage element, concurrent processes, or multiple programs, running under a loosely or tightlycontrolled regime.4.In distributed computing a program is split up into parts that run simultaneously on multiple computerscommunicating over a network. Distributed computing is a form of parallel computing, but parallelcomputing is most commonly used to describe program parts running
simultaneously on multiple
processors in the same computer.
(e)Discuss anti-dependence / Name-dependence Vs True dependence. (Year - 2006)Solution:
occurs when an instruction requires a value that is later updated. In the followingexample, instruction 3 anti-depends on instruction 2 - the ordering of these instructions cannot be
Model Question Paper - I