The Second Chechen War, in a later phase better known as the War in the North Caucasus,
was launched by the Russian Federation starting August 26,1999, in which Russian
federal forces largely re-took control of thesepar atist region ofChechnya.
although no evidence linkingChechens with the bombings has been released to the public.
The campaign largely reversed the outcome of the First Chechen War, in which the region
gained de facto independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. Although it is regarded
by many as an internal conflict within the Russian Federation, the war attracted a large
number ofJihadist foreign fighters.
Chechnya in May 2000 and after the full-scaleof f ensive, Chechen guerrilla resistance
throughout the North Caucasus region continued to inflict heavy Russian casualties and
challenge Russian political control over Chechnya for several more years. Some Chechen
rebels also carried out terrorist attacks againstcivilians in Russia. These terrorist attacks,
as well as widespread human rights violations by Russian and rebel forces, drew
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