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Lecture 10- English Intonation (d)

Lecture 10- English Intonation (d)

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Published by Walid Anglais
English Intonation Patterns
English Intonation Patterns

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Published by: Walid Anglais on Apr 21, 2013
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Phonetics________________2
nd
Year LMD Teacher:
 
Mr.Aounali. W
Lecture 9
:
 
Introduction:
Sentence stress and intonation are interrelated, wherein
intonation organizes words into sentences,distinguishes between different types of sentences, and adds emotional coloring to utterances.English intonation is quite difficult for EFL learners. Yet, developing the ability to understandand reproduce sentence stress and intonation is a necessity to be fluent in English language.
1. What is intonation?
Tone differences or pitch changes are used in English language to mark off larger  phonological and grammatical units (suprasegmentals) such as phrases and clauses, and todistinguish between different types of such units rather than the word (segmentals) syllables.The variations in pitch (tone) mainly do not affect the
lexical 
meaning of the utterances, butconvey other types of information such as questioning, anger, affection, politeness, anger, etc.
2. Graphic Representation of Tones:
There are four simple moving tones in English according to the behavior of the speaker:
The Low Fall
 
The pitch of the voice
falls
from
a medium to a very low level 
E.g.: How are you.
(Statement)
 
The High Fall
The pitch of the voice
falls
from
a high to a medium level 
E.g.: Peter:
How many shoes in a pair?
 John: Two
 
The Low Rise
The pitch of the voice
rises
from
a very low to a medium level 
E.g.: Isn't he nice? Yes No
 
The High Rise
The pitch of the voice
rises
from
a medium to a high level 
E.g.: She passed her driving test. She passed?
(disbelief)
 
In complex moving tones, there is a change of the pitch movement as follows:
The Rise-Fall
The pitch of the voice
rises first
from a
low to a high pitch,
and then, still within the sentence,
falls to a low pitch.
 
En
g
lish Intonation Patterns
 
E.g.: Will you come with me. Yes, of course.. 
(showing enthusiasm & agreement)
 
Page
1
of 
4
 
The Fall-Rise
The pitch of the voice
first falls
from a
high to a low pitch,
and then, still with the sentence,
rises to a medium pitch.
E.g.: A quick tour of the city.Would be NICE.
(dependency)
 For a concrete example consider the difference between: You're going. (statement)You're going
 
? (question)
 
Phonetics________________2
nd
Year LMD Teacher:
 
Mr.Aounali. W
Page
2
of 
4
 
3. The Functions of English Tones:
English speakers produce melodies of different kinds with the voice rising and falling in order to convey several emotions, feelings, and attitudes or even his mood. The main functions are:
1.
 
The attitudinal function:
Intonation enables the speaker to express emotions and attitudes, anger, boredom, and thisadds a special kind of meaning to spoken language.
2. The accentual function:
 
Intonation helps to produce the effect of 
 prominence
on the syllables that need to be perceivedas stressed, and in particular, the
 placement of tonic stress
on a particular syllable marks themost important word in the utterance. i.e: the
focus word
.
 
3. The grammatical function:
the listener is better able to recognise the grammar and syntax of what is being said using theinformation enclosed in intonation. For instance, the difference between
questions & statements
and the use of grammatical
 subordination
.
4. The discourse function:
we can see that intonation can indicate to the hearer what is the “
new information
and what is
the “
 given/old information
which represents shared knowledge between the speaker & thehearer. In can also convey to the expected response.
3.1. The Attitudinal Function of Falling Tones:
We will now move on to look at the attitudinal function of the falling tones in English:
3.1.1. The high-fall
:
 
The High-Fall tone generally indicates
finality and completeness
, and the speaker hasdelivered a complete message; the speaker does not show an intention to continue speaking.Please, close the window. Stop that machine.E.g.:
 
Paul is very
 
tall. Paul is
 
very tall. (Paul and not another one)
E.g.:1. Stop talking (anger). 2. It can be true (doubt). 3.
It’s
 
impossible (surprise).E.g.:
 
She
 
dressed/ and fed the baby. ( She dressed herself and then fed the baby)
E.g.:
 
My name is Bond. James
 
Bond. (new is accented )
 
Statement:
We are leaving.
 
 
 Replies to questions:
I think it’s next
 
Monday.
 
Commands/ orders:
 
if the speaker expects the hearer to perform the command 
 
 
Phonetics________________2
nd
Year LMD Teacher:
 
Mr.Aounali. W
Page
3
of 
4
 
3.1.2. THE LOW-FALL
:
The Low-Fall tone can be
expected as “
almost finality
. This tone differs from the high-fallin probability and
abrupt termination
on the part of the speaker. The impression of 
abruptness
,
impatience
, and
lack of concern,
is shown by the speaker in conversation.A: Do you like Shakespeare? B: Yes (low-fall). Speaker B seems uninterested.
3.1.3. the rise-fall
:
The Rise-Fall tone adds
emphasis
to what would be communicated by the High-Fall tonespeaker. It usually denotes strong
feelings
and
emotions
.1.
 
I like it. 2.
She’s
really wonderful. 3. He studied at Cambridge!
3.2. The Attitudinal Function of Rising Tones:
This time, we will tackle the attitudinal function of the rising tones in English:
3.2.1. the high-rise
:
The High-Rise tone is the opposite of the High-Fall: it is
non-final, not conclusive
.
 
 In a statement: when the message is uncommon or contradicts what was said before.
1.
He’s learning
Chinese
! (it’s incredible!)
 
2.He’s a
mechanic? (
 Not an engineer as you
said)
 
To ask for a repetition of what was said before, because the hearer 
hasn’t heard  properly or he can’t believe what he has heard. Expressing 
strong surprise
.
1. Can I have some beef soup? The waiter answers: What? (Restaurant is vegetarian)2. A: Where are you spending your holiday? B:Probably in Bra zil. A:Where did you say?
 
Yes-no questions, this sort of questions do not begin with a question word like (how, why)
1. Are you ready?
2. Won’t you com
e a long with us?
3.2.2. the low-rise
:
The Low-Rise tone can be a
call for attention
or a
signal that the speaker is listening andexpects the conversation to go on.
Low-rise tone could be taken as
showing of interest
.1.A: Ex cuse me. (wishin
g to attract B’s attention)
B: Yes
(B’s interested and reply go on)
 2. A: Do you know John Smith? B: Yes (B replies with low-rise tone to invite Ato continue with what he intends to say about John Smith after establishing that B knows him)3. A: You start from the K 
ing’
s Cross
 B: Yes
. (B’s inviting A to continue giving the directions)
 A: Turn
left at the first roundabout…
 B: Yes (encouraging A to continue the conversation)A: a
nd you’l
l find the office on the third floor.

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