TURN: FREEDOM CANNOT EXIST WITHOUT THE STATE TO SUSTAIN IT
, Political Scientist, POLITICAL THEORY, May 19
, pp. 204-234.(MHDRG/E735)Again in concordance with Heidegger, Arendt perceives a close proximity betweengenuine freedom and human solidarity "We first become aware of freedom or itsopposite," she observes, "in our intercourse with others, not in the intercourse withourselves. Before it became an attribute of thought or a quality of the will,
freedom wasunderstood to be the free man's status, which enabled him to move, to get awayfrom home, to go out into the world and meet other people in deed and word.
without a politically guaranteed public realm, freedom lacks the worldlyspace to make its appearance."
Given its connection with human solidarity or plurality.
Freedom cannot coincide with voluntarism or the mere exercise of free will; evenless can it coincide with an absolute free will or an absolute will power as it hastraditionally been formulated in the doctrine of sovereignty.ANARCHY INCLUDES A PERPETUAL RISK OF THE DESTRUCTION OFOTHER’S LIVES AND PROPERTY. MOREOVER, THE STATE IS ESSENTIALFOR HUMAN SOCIAL EXISTENCE.
Reflections on the Minimal State, by John
, Associate Professor of LawGeorge Mason University, 20
The exemplar of the argument for the state can be taken from Chapter IX of John Locke'sSecond Treatise of Government.(9) There
Locke contends that in the state of nature,i.e., in the absence of a state, human beings can have no "established, settled, knownlaw," no "known and indifferent judge," and no "power to back and support [a]sentence when right, and to give it due execution."(10) The lack of a uniformlyaccepted body of law and any recognized judicial and enforcement authority meansthat individuals' lives and property are always at risk of invasion by others. Becauseonly a state can supply the rule-making, adjudicative, and enforcement services thatindividuals require for "the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties andestates,"(11) the state is essential for human social existence
, and is therefore morally justified.(12)
THE STATE IS ESSENTIAL FOR EDUCATION
Education: Question for Debate has been jointly prepared by the EI education departmentteam composed of Elie Jouen, Monique Fouilhoux, Ulf
and consultantsYves Baunay and Richard Langlois, 19
99The involvement of the State is essential to ensure:universal access to quality education
, which requires appropriate social policy provisions (free education, support services, etc.);the continuity of public service provision accessible to all.
In order to serve the interests of the general public and society at large, and in orderto pursue long-term objectives, the public education system must not be subservientto the interests of individual groups (local pressure groups) or to short-terminterests.