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Affirmative Answers to Statism Kritik - gigdebate

Affirmative Answers to Statism Kritik - gigdebate



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Published by Incoherency
By gigdebate. (Gig Harbor? I dunno)
By gigdebate. (Gig Harbor? I dunno)

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Published by: Incoherency on Mar 18, 2007
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University of Kent at Canterbury. Economic Thought and the Role of the State in ‘LateDevelopment’: Friedrich List and the Japanese ‘Miracle’ BY Ralf 
(MA byResearch in International Relations), 19
In an era of so-called ‘globalisation’, the media and a growing part of thescientific community are arguing that the nation state and national economic objectivesare increasingly devoid of meaning, and are generally pointing towards Anglo-Americanstyle market economies for ideal types. However,
economic development does notnecessarily have to be facilitated only through market forces, and there has been agrowing tendency to overlook the statist perspective on development.
economic history illustrates that development has been brought about by variousmeans: markets and states have often equally contributed to the economic success orfailure of countries
. But as this dissertation has shown, the Japanese economic ‘miracle’is an extremely powerful illustration that the state is not completely out of the equationfor economic development. Nevertheless, the notion of a ‘miracle’ alone usually wouldimply that there is more to it than simply just a continuous process of industrialdevelopment. The term ‘miracle’ has been coined by Anglo-American economists to‘explain’ the inexplicable. But as we have seen, only in terms of classical or neo-classicaltheory the high-speed growth of the government-led industrialisation and development inJapan cannot be fully explained since the state is disregarded as an economic actor andonly market forces are accounted for. The Japanese model, the developmental capitalismdescribed, is still a controversial topic but there is a growing body of literature which points to this relatively new insight into national economic development. ChalmersJohnson, one of the outstanding scholars of Japan, has written, “that Japan has inventedand put together the institutions of capitalism in new ways, ways that neither Adam Smithnor Karl Marx would recognise or understand.”Thus,
the state has taken a truely active role in Japan by shaping thedirection the market takes through the co-ordination of an industry-wide consensuson development objectives, industrial policy and administrative guidance forselected targets.
Consequently, this has lead to a reconsideration of development modelsin the western world, even though in East Asia a fundamental understanding of this isalready common place and was used to build up the tiger or dragon economies in the Newly Industrialising Countries (NICs) of the region. An important part of this re-thinking process is the re-emergence of Friedrich List, who inspired and gave direction tothe Japanese economic development from the Meiji period onwards.In conclusion,
it is simply unjustified
, despite the recent economic crisis in Asia,
to declare the state’s role as invalid and unimportant
. In theoretical terms, thecommon Anglo-American depiction of state versus market is too simplified to account for the economic reality, especially in East Asia. Not the choice between Stalinist statecontrolled (plan ideological) and free market (market ideological) economy has led to thesuccess of Japan’s economic system, but
the demonstrated synergy between state andmarkets was essential.
Georgetown international relations professor, ‘
[Charles, THE END OFTHE AMERICAN ERA, Knopf, p. 95 (PDOCSS1071)The stock market and the economy as a whole cooled off with welcome calm in light of the excesses built up over the 1990s. By the spring of 2001, the average price-to-earningsratio on the S&P Index had settled in less dangerous territory. But
as the past makes alltoo clear, any number of unforeseen developments could have turned a relativelybenign environment into an economic maelstrom. And the effects of a U.S. economyin distress would surely be felt throughout the global economy.
The same features of globalization that Friedman finds so attractive-its speed, depth, scope, and low cost-makeit a safe bet that bad times in America will be transmitted to the rest of the world withimpressive efficiency. This is a central point. Globalization itself is a neutral phenomenonmade possible by the expanding infrastructure-the plumbingof the global economy. Ingood times, this infrastructure quickly transmits prosperity and stability. But
in badtimes, it just as quickly transmits impoverishment and volatility: The effects of globalization depend entirely upon what is running through its fast and wide pipes.The East Asian financial crisis gave us a good taste of just how quickly andruthlessly trouble can spread through the global economy.ANOTHER DEPRESSION WILL CAUSE AN ARMED CONFLICT THATTHREATENS SURVIVAL
, Senior Director of International Economic Affairs, THE WORLD ANDI, 19
, p. 33 (MHBLUE1667)"
The thirties after all began three months after the inception of the GreatDepression and ended four months after the start of World War II. This is not acoincidence. Tens of millions were killed and maimed in the Second World War. If another historical credit liquidation cycle is allowed to take place in the usualchaotic fashion the chances of another global armed conflict will be greatlyincreased--time not only would hundreds of millions (rather than tens of millions) bekilled or wounded but the very hopes and the future of mankind, as such, might wellbe destroyed in the process.TURN: THE STATE IS ESSENTIAL FOR PRESERVING SOVEREIGNTY,FREEDOM, AND JUSTICE
Ponce de León
, President of the United Mexican States, September 1,19
97The existence of the State is essential for preserving national sovereignty,guaranteeing democratic freedoms and ensuring observance of the law. But it is alsoessential because of the great responsibility it has to secure social justice
, Political Scientist, POLITICAL THEORY, May 19
, pp. 204-234.(MHDRG/E735)Again in concordance with Heidegger, Arendt perceives a close proximity betweengenuine freedom and human solidarity "We first become aware of freedom or itsopposite," she observes, "in our intercourse with others, not in the intercourse withourselves. Before it became an attribute of thought or a quality of the will,
freedom wasunderstood to be the free man's status, which enabled him to move, to get awayfrom home, to go out into the world and meet other people in deed and word.
"Basically, "
without a politically guaranteed public realm, freedom lacks the worldlyspace to make its appearance."
Given its connection with human solidarity or plurality.
Freedom cannot coincide with voluntarism or the mere exercise of free will; evenless can it coincide with an absolute free will or an absolute will power as it hastraditionally been formulated in the doctrine of sovereignty.ANARCHY INCLUDES A PERPETUAL RISK OF THE DESTRUCTION OFOTHER’S LIVES AND PROPERTY. MOREOVER, THE STATE IS ESSENTIALFOR HUMAN SOCIAL EXISTENCE.
Reflections on the Minimal State, by John
, Associate Professor of LawGeorge Mason University, 20
The exemplar of the argument for the state can be taken from Chapter IX of John Locke'sSecond Treatise of Government.(9) There
Locke contends that in the state of nature,i.e., in the absence of a state, human beings can have no "established, settled, knownlaw," no "known and indifferent judge," and no "power to back and support [a]sentence when right, and to give it due execution."(10) The lack of a uniformlyaccepted body of law and any recognized judicial and enforcement authority meansthat individuals' lives and property are always at risk of invasion by others. Becauseonly a state can supply the rule-making, adjudicative, and enforcement services thatindividuals require for "the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties andestates,"(11) the state is essential for human social existence
, and is therefore morally justified.(12)
Education: Question for Debate has been jointly prepared by the EI education departmentteam composed of Elie Jouen, Monique Fouilhoux, Ulf 
and consultantsYves Baunay and Richard Langlois, 19
99The involvement of the State is essential to ensure:universal access to quality education
, which requires appropriate social policy provisions (free education, support services, etc.);the continuity of public service provision accessible to all.
In order to serve the interests of the general public and society at large, and in orderto pursue long-term objectives, the public education system must not be subservientto the interests of individual groups (local pressure groups) or to short-terminterests.

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