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Table Of Contents

CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL
Nature and Classification of Crude Oil
1.1HISTORY AND NATURE OF PETROLEUM
1.1.1Origin of Petroleum
1.1.2 Oil Formation in the World's Oceans
1.1.3 Modern Concept of Formation of Petroleum
1.1.4 Consequences of Intensive Extraction and Processing of Oil |6-8]
1.1.4.2 Black oceans
1.2.1Fractions and Chemical Composition of Petroleum
1.2.2 Chemical Classification of Petroleum
1.2.3 Classification by Density
1.2.4 Characterization by Viscosity-Gravity Constant (vgc)
1.2.5 Technological Classification of Petroleum
1.3 PRODUCTS FROM CRUDE OIL [2-4]
1.3.1Gasoline
1.3.2 Jet Fuel (Kerosene)
1.3.3 Diesel
1.3.4 Residual Fuel
1.3.5 International Standards for Fuels
1.4 LUBRICATING OILS AND LUBRICANTS
2.1.1Gas Chromatography
2.1.2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography
2.1.3 Thin Layer Chromatography
2.2 SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS
2.2.1Infrared Spectroscopy
2.2.2 Raman Spectroscopy
2.2.3 Colorimetry and Photometry
2.2.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Spectroscopy
2.2.6 X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
2.3 OTHER METHODS FOR ELUCIDATING THE STRUCTURE OF CRUDE OIL
2.3.1Separation Methods
2.4.1Direct Methods
2.4.2 Indirect Methods
2.5 DETERMINATION OF THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CRUDE OIL
2.5.1Density Determination
2.5.2 Viscosity Determination
2.5.3 Refractive Index Determination
Bibliography
Petroleum Producing Countries: OPEC and Non-OPEC
3.1.1Short Background on OPEC
3.2 NORTH AMERICA
3.3.1The Role of the Petroleum Industry for Russia
3.3.2 Reforms in the Russian Oil Industry
3.3.3 Russian Petroleum and Gas in the World Market
3.3.4 Structure of the Petroleum Sector in Russia
3.4.2 Iraq
3.4.3 Iran
3.4.4 Qatar
3.4.5 Kuwait
3.4.6 United Arab Emirates
3.4.7 Saudi Arabia
International Petroleum Companies
Crude Oil Distillation
5.1 PETROLEUM AND GAS PREPARATION
5.1.1Formation of Petroleum Emulsions and Their Basic Properties
5.1.2 Separation of Water-Oil Emulsions
5.1.3 Mechanical Petroleum Drying
5.1.4 Thermal Petroleum Drying
5.1.5 Chemical Methods of Petroleum Drying
5.1.6 Thermal Chemical Petroleum Drying
5.1.7 Stabilization of Petroleum
5.1.8 Technological Schemes for Petroleum Preparation
5.1.9 Pressure Extraction System
5.2 DESALTING
5.3 ATMOSPHERIC RECTIFICATION
5.2.4 Vacuum Rectification
5.5 Heat Exchangers and Separators
Processing of Light and Heavy Distillates
6.1THERMAL CRACKING
6.2 CATALYTIC CRACKING
6.6 REFORMING
6.7 ISOMERIZATION
6.8 ALKYLATION
6.9 BLENDING
7.2 METHODS OF CLEANING CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED WATER AND SOIL
7.3 METHODS OF AIR AND GAS CLEANING USED IN THE CRUDE OIL INDUSTRY
7.4 CONCLUSION TO PART III
HEAVY OIL PROCESSING - CHEMISTRY OF ASPHALTENES
Chemistry of Crude Oil Asphaltenes
8.2.1Coke Formation and Reduction of Heavy Metals
8.2.2 Treatment Possibilities for Crude Oil Residues
8.2.2.1Physical treatment - deasphalting
8.2.2.2 Chemical treatments
8.2.2.3 Visbreaking
8.2.2.4 Coking
8.2.3 Coke Forming Reactions During Residue Treatment
8.2.3.1Catalytic treatment
8.2.3.2 Thermal treatment
8.3 METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF CRUDE OIL RESIDUE
8.3.2 Analytical Characterization of Heavy Oil Residues and Asphaltenes
8.3.2.1Solution analysis
8.3.2.2 Coagulation analysis
8.3.2.3 Distillation method
8.3.2.4 Chromatography
8.3.2.6 Ultimate analysis
8.3.2.7 Molecular weight determination
8.3.3 Temperature Influence on Molecular Weight Determination
Processing of Heavy Crude Oils and Crude Oil Residues
9.2.1Change of Asphaltene Structure During Thermal Processing
9.2.3 Hydrogen Transfer
9.3 CO-PROCESSING WITH CRACKED PRODUCTS
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