a major problem with large networks especially on slow links and WAN clouds.
RIP converges slower than OSPF. In large networks convergence gets to be in the order of minutes. RIP routers will go through a period of a hold-down and garbage collection and willslowly time-out information that has not been received recently. This is inappropriate in largeenvironments and could cause routing inconsistencies.
RIP has no concept of network delays and link costs. Routing decisions are based on hopcounts. The path with the lowest hop count to the destination is always preferred even if thelonger path has a better aggregate link bandwidth and slower delays.
RIP networks are flat networks. There is no concept of areas or boundaries. With theintroduction of classless routing and the intelligent use of aggregation and summarization, RIPnetworks seem to have fallen behind.Some enhancements were introduced in a new version of RIP called RIP2. RIP2 addresses the issuesof VLSM, authentication, and multicast routing updates. RIP2 is not a big improvement over RIP(now called RIP 1) because it still has the limitations of hop counts and slow convergence which areessential in todays large networks.OSPF, on the other hand, addresses most of the issues presented above:
With OSPF, there is no limitation on the hop count.
The intelligent use of VLSM is very useful in IP address allocation.
OSPF uses IP multicast to send link-state updates. This ensures less processing on routers thatare not listening to OSPF packets. Also, updates are only sent in case routing changes occurinstead of periodically. This ensures a better use of bandwidth.
OSPF has better convergence than RIP. This is because routing changes are propagatedinstantaneously and not periodically.
OSPF allows for better load balancing.
OSPF allows for a logical definition of networks where routers can be divided into areas. Thiswill limit the explosion of link state updates over the whole network. This also provides amechanism for aggregating routes and cutting down on the unnecessary propagation of subnetinformation.
OSPF allows for routing authentication by using different methods of password authentication.
OSPF allows for the transfer and tagging of external routes injected into an AutonomousSystem. This keeps track of external routes injected by exterior protocols such as BGP.This of course would lead to more complexity in configuring and troubleshooting OSPF networks.Administrators that are used to the simplicity of RIP will be challenged with the amount of newinformation they have to learn in order to keep up with OSPF networks. Also, this will introducemore overhead in memory allocation and CPU utilization. Some of the routers running RIP mighthave to be upgraded in order to handle the overhead caused by OSPF.
What Do We Mean by Link-States?
Page 3 of 58Cisco - OSPF Design Guide4/7/2006http://www.cisco.com/warp/customer/104/1.html