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Octavian and the Thunderbolt. the Temple of Apollo Palatinus and Roman Traditions OfTemple Building

Octavian and the Thunderbolt. the Temple of Apollo Palatinus and Roman Traditions OfTemple Building

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Octavian and the Thunderbolt: The Temple of Apollo Palatinus and Roman Traditions ofTemple BuildingAuthor(s): Olivier Hekster and John RichSource:
The Classical Quarterly,
Vol. 56, No. 1 (May, 2006), pp. 149-168Published by:
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This content downloaded from 89.180.70.132 on Mon, 22 Apr 2013 07:02:26 AMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions
 
ClassicalQuarterly6.1 149-168(2006)PrintednGreatBritain149doi:10.1017/S0009838806000127
OCTAVIANANDTHETHUNDERBOLT:THE TEMPLEOFAPOLLO PALATINUSANDROMAN TRADITIONS OF TEMPLEBUILDING
In 36 B.C.Octavian nnouncedhis intentionofbuildinganewtempleoApollonextto hishouseonthe south-westdgeofthe PalatineHill,andin28 he dedicated hecompleted emplewith itsassociatedporticoesandlibraries.Excavations onductedintheareainthe 1950s and 1960sconfirmedtheidentificationofthetemple'sremainsand revealed headjacentportionofAugustus'house.However,he excav-ationswereneverullypublished,nd muchremainsuncertain boutthetopographyofthesanctuary.'Themagnificencef thesanctuary'suildingsand artworks svividlyevokednPropertius' escriptionandinmanyotherancientallusions.2nrecentscholarshiptherehas beenmuchdiscussionof thesymbolismfits visualprogrammendofthesignificancefits location.3Octavian/Augustusadchosenfor hishouseasite withpowerfulassociationswithRome'searliestpast,inparticularwithRomulus,whosereputedhutstoodnearby.The house tselfwasrelativelymodest,buthesharedt withthegodwho was hisparticularpatron,anassociationofsanctuaryandruler'sresidencehat,asZankerhasobserved,s reminiscent fHellenisticpalaces.Oneaspectthathas attractedrelativelyittle discussion isOctavian'soriginaldecisionofoundthetemple.Thispaperoffersacloserexamination f thisdecisionagainsthebackgroundfRoman raditionsoftempleoundation. t willbe shown
1
Excavationeports:G.Carettoni,Iproblemiella zonaaugusteadel Palatinoallalucedeirecenticavi',Rend Pont.Acc.39(1966-67),55-65,and 'Roma-Le costruzioni iAugustoiltempiodiApollosulPalatino',rch.Laz.1(1978),2-4.Recentdiscussionsnclude:.Richardson,
Jr,ANewTopographicalictionaryofAncientRome(BaltimoreandLondon,1992),14;P.Gros,inE.M.Steinby,LexiconTopographicumUrbisRomae[hereafterLTUR],1.54-7;L.Balensiefen,
'UberlegungenuAufbauundLageder DanaidenhalleufdemPalatin',MDAI(R)102(1995),
189-209;A.Claridge,LTUR5.225,and Rome: AnOxfordArchaeologicalGuideOxford, 1998),131;
M. A.Tomei,Irestidelarcodi OttavioilporticodelleDanaidi',MEFRA 122000),57-610.Seealson.11.
2
Hor. Od1.31;Prop.Eleg.2.31;Verg.Aen.8.720;Ov. Fast.4.951-4,Ars. Am.1.73-4,Trist.
3.1.59-64;RG19.1,24.2;Vell.2.81.3;Asc.90C;Plin.NH36.11,24-5, 32,37.11;oseph.BJ2.81;Suet.Aug.29.3,52.1;Dio53.1.3;erv.Aen.8.720.
3
P.
Zanker,DerApollontempeluf
dem
Palatin',n
Cittdi architetturaella Romaimperiale,Anal.Rom.,Suppl.10(1983),21-40,and ThePowerofImagesintheAgeof AugustusAnnArbor,
1988),50-3,85-9;B.Kellum,SculpturalrogramsndpropagandanAugustanRome: heTempleofApolloon thePalatine',nR.Winkesed.),TheAgeofAugustusLouvain, 985),169-76repr.
inE.D'Ambra[ed.],Roman Art inContext.AnAnthology[EnglewoodCliffs, NJ,1993], 75-84);E.Simon,Augustus.Kunst und Leben in Romum dieZeitenwende(Munich,1986),19-25;G.Carettoni,inKaiserAugustusund dieverloreneRepublikBerlin,1988),263-72;E.Lefivre,DasBildprogrammesApollo-Tempelsufdem Palatin(Konstanz,1989);M.J.Strazzulla,lprincipatodiApollo.Mitoepropagandanellelastre'Campane'daltempiodiApolloPalatino(Rome,1990);G.Sauron,QuisDeum?L'expressionlastiquedesidWologiesolitiquesetreligieusesaRome(Rome,1994),501-10;G. K.Galinsky, AugustanCulture:AnInterpretiventroductionPrinceton,1996),213-24;D.Kienast,Augustus;Prinzepsund MonarchDarmstadt,
19993),
231-8;PMarchetti,'Le
substratorien el'Apollonalatin: eRome
a
aGracet viceversa',nJ.-Y.MarcandJ.-C.Moretti
(edd.),Constructionsubliquesetprogrammesdilitaires en Greceentreleliesikcleav.J-Cet lelersiecleap.J-C(Athens,2001),455-71.
This content downloaded from 89.180.70.132 on Mon, 22 Apr 2013 07:02:26 AMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions
 
1500.HEKSTERANDJ. RICH
thatthetemplewasnot,ashasoftenbeensupposed,athank-offeringorthevictoryinSicilyinthe traditionoftemplesvowedbysuccessfulcommanders.Nor couldOctavianimplyestablishhispatrongodnext tohishouseat his ownwhim,or todosowouldhavebeen anactofarrogancet a time when hewasalready eekingoadoptthe stanceofrepublicanegitimacynd traditionalismhichservedhim sowellin his finalstrugglewithAntonyandas sole ruler.Itwillbearguedhere thatinfoundingthetempleOctavian drewon traditionalpracticeintheexpiationofprodigies,utradically daptedt forhis ownpurposes.I. THEPROCLAMATION F36B.c.Octavian(orinrealityhisadmiralAgrippa)won thedecisivenavalvictoryoverSextusPompeiusat Naulochuson3September36
B.C.4
Octavian hen settledhisremainingaffairsinSicily,oustingLepidusandquellingamutiny.5With thisaccomplished,hereturnedoRome,where he held anovation on 13November,enteringhecityon horseback atherhan on footinthe traditionalmanner.6Thislesserformoftriumphwasappropriateorwhatherepresenteds a waragainstslaves.7AppianBCiv.5.130-1.538-43)andCassiusDio(49.15-16)giveparallelnarrativesofOctavian's eturno Rome.Beforehis arrivalhe was voted numerousonours.Onarrivalhe madespeecheso the senate andpeople,whichAppiantellsus he laterpublished.ntheseherecounted is achievements ndpolicies,proclaimedheendingofcivilwar,abolishedarious axesandcancelledarrearso thetreasury.He refusedsomeof the honoursdecreedanddeclinedo assume heofficeofPontifexMaximus,still heldby Lepidus.The honoursaccepted,aslistedby Appian,weretheovation,thedeclarationf thedayof the Naulochusvictoryasannualferiae,ndthe erectionofanavalcolumn surmountedbyagoldenstatue ofhimself,adornedwithprowscapturednthebattleandbearingtheinscription,Peace,ongdisturbed,he re-establishedn land andsea'.8Subsequently,wofurtherhonourswere decreed orOctavian.One relatedo thetribunicianpower.The claimofAppianand Orosiusthathe now receivedthetribunicianowerorlife iscertainlywrong,but,ifthehonourconferredwasinthemorelimitedtermsstatedbyDio,namelysacrosanctitasndtherighttosit on thetribunes'enches,Octavianmayhaveacceptedt.9Appianinksthishonouro movesbyOctavianto re-establishepublicanormsand apromisehemadeto secureAntony'sagreementnhisreturn romParthiaorthesurrenderf theirpowersand
4A.Degrassi,Inscriptionestaliae13.3.506=V.EhrenbergandA.H.M.Jones,DocumentsIllustratingheReignsofAugustusand TiberiusOxford,19552,repr.withaddenda,1976)[hereafterEJ],p.51.
5
OntheseeventseenowG.Mundubeltz,Octavientson armeeau lendemainelaguerreeSicile36-35av.J.-C.)',Athenaeum8(2000),169-201.
6
Inscr.tal.13.1.569=EJ34;RG4.1;Suet.Aug.22;J.W.HumphreyndM.Reinhold,ResGestae.1 and the ovationsfAugustus',ZPE 57(1984),60-2.
7
RG25.1;J.Fugmann,'Mareapraedonibuspacavi.Zum Gedankenderaemulatioinden ResGestaedesAugustus',Historia40(1991),307-17.
8
Thefirsttwo honoursare confirmedbythesources listedat nn.4,6.The columnmaybe
depictedatRIC12Augustus271,but thismayshow one ofthe furthernavalcolumnserectedafterActiumServ.Georg..29).9App.BCiv.5.132.548-9;Dio49.15.5-6;H.M.Last,OnthetribuniciapotestasfAugustus',RendIst.Lomb.4(1951),93-110;R.A.Bauman,Tribunicianacrosanctityn44,36and35B.c.',RhM124(1981),166-83.
This content downloaded from 89.180.70.132 on Mon, 22 Apr 2013 07:02:26 AMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions

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